Search Results

Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Item
    Respiratory tract deposition of inhaled roadside ultrafine refractory particles in a polluted megacity of South-East Asia
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Löndahl, Jakob; Vallar, Edgar; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Idolor, Luisito F.; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Recent studies demonstrate that Black Carbon (BC) pollution in economically developing megacities remain higher than the values, which the World Health Organization considers to be safe. Despite the scientific evidence of the degrees of BC exposure, there is still a lack of understanding on how the severe levels of BC pollution affect human health in these regions. We consider information on the respiratory tract deposition dose (DD) of BC to be essential in understanding the link between personal exposure to air pollutants and corresponding health effects. In this work, we combine data on fine and ultrafine refractory particle number concentrations (BC proxy), and activity patterns to derive the respiratory tract deposited amounts of BC particles for the population of the highly polluted metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. We calculated the total DD of refractory particles based on three metrics: refractory particle number, surface area, and mass concentrations. The calculated DD of total refractory particle number in Metro Manila was found to be 1.6 to 17 times higher than average values reported from Europe and the U.S. In the case of Manila, ultrafine particles smaller than 100 nm accounted for more than 90% of the total deposited refractory particle dose in terms of particle number. This work is a first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the DD of refractory particles and raise awareness in assessing pollution-related health effects in developing megacities. We demonstrate that the majority of the population may be highly affected by BC pollution, which is known to have negative health outcomes if no actions are taken to mitigate its emission. For the governments of such metropolitan areas, we suggest to revise currently existing environmental legislation, raise public awareness, and to establish supplementary monitoring of black carbon in parallel to already existing PM 10 and PM 2.5 measures. © 2019
  • Item
    A new method to measure real-world respiratory tract deposition of inhaled ambient black carbon
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Madueño, Leizel; Kecorius, Simonas; Löndahl, Jakob; Müller, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sascha; Haudek, Andrea; Mardoñez, Valeria; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    In this study, we present the development of a mobile system to measure real-world total respiratory tract deposition of inhaled ambient black carbon (BC). Such information can be used to supplement the existing knowledge on air pollution-related health effects, especially in the regions where the use of standard methods and intricate instrumentation is limited. The study is divided in two parts. Firstly, we present the design of portable system and methodology to evaluate the exhaled air BC content. We demonstrate that under real-world conditions, the proposed system exhibit negligible particle losses, and can additionally be used to determine the minute ventilation. Secondly, exemplary experimental data from the system is presented. A feasibility study was conducted in the city of La Paz, Bolivia. In a pilot experiment, we found that the cumulative total respiratory tract deposition dose over 1-h commuting trip would result in approximately 2.6 μg of BC. This is up to 5 times lower than the values obtained from conjectural approach (e.g. using physical parameters from previously reported worksheets). Measured total respiratory tract deposited BC fraction varied from 39% to 48% during walking and commuting inside a micro-bus, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, no studies focusing on experimental determination of real-world deposition dose of BC have been performed in developing regions. This can be especially important because the BC mass concentration is significant and determines a large fraction of particle mass concentration. In this work, we propose a potential method, recommendations, as well as the limitations in establishing an easy and relatively cheap way to estimate the respiratory tract deposition of BC. In this study we present a novel method to measure real-world respiratory tract deposition dose of Black Carbon. Results from a pilot study in La Paz, Bolivia, are presented. © 2019 The Authors
  • Item
    Phenomenology of ultrafine particle concentrations and size distribution across urban Europe
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2023) Trechera, Pedro; Garcia-Marlès, Meritxell; Liu, Xiansheng; Reche, Cristina; Pérez, Noemí; Savadkoohi, Marjan; Beddows, David; Salma, Imre; Vörösmarty, Máté; Casans, Andrea; Casquero-Vera, Juan Andrés; Hueglin, Christoph; Marchand, Nicolas; Chazeau, Benjamin; Gille, Grégory; Kalkavouras, Panayiotis; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Ondracek, Jakub; Zikova, Nadia; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Manninen, Hanna E.; Green, David C.; Tremper, Anja H.; Norman, Michael; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Gerwig, Holger; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Bastian, Susanne; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Favez, Olivier; Crumeyrolle, Suzanne; Ferlay, Nicolas; Martins Dos Santos, Sebastiao; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Timonen, Hilkka; Lampilahti, Janne; Asbach, Christof; Wolf, Carmen; Kaminski, Heinz; Altug, Hicran; Hoffmann, Barbara; Rich, David Q.; Pandolfi, Marco; Harrison, Roy M.; Hopke, Philip K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier
    The 2017–2019 hourly particle number size distributions (PNSD) from 26 sites in Europe and 1 in the US were evaluated focusing on 16 urban background (UB) and 6 traffic (TR) sites in the framework of Research Infrastructures services reinforcing air quality monitoring capacities in European URBAN & industrial areaS (RI-URBANS) project. The main objective was to describe the phenomenology of urban ultrafine particles (UFP) in Europe with a significant air quality focus. The varying lower size detection limits made it difficult to compare PN concentrations (PNC), particularly PN10-25, from different cities. PNCs follow a TR > UB > Suburban (SUB) order. PNC and Black Carbon (BC) progressively increase from Northern Europe to Southern Europe and from Western to Eastern Europe. At the UB sites, typical traffic rush hour PNC peaks are evident, many also showing midday-morning PNC peaks anti-correlated with BC. These peaks result from increased PN10-25, suggesting significant PNC contributions from nucleation, fumigation and shipping. Site types to be identified by daily and seasonal PNC and BC patterns are: (i) PNC mainly driven by traffic emissions, with marked correlations with BC on different time scales; (ii) marked midday/morning PNC peaks and a seasonal anti-correlation with PNC/BC; (iii) both traffic peaks and midday peaks without marked seasonal patterns. Groups (ii) and (iii) included cities with high insolation. PNC, especially PN25-800, was positively correlated with BC, NO2, CO and PM for several sites. The variable correlation of PNSD with different urban pollutants demonstrates that these do not reflect the variability of UFP in urban environments. Specific monitoring of PNSD is needed if nanoparticles and their associated health impacts are to be assessed. Implementation of the CEN-ACTRIS recommendations for PNSD measurements would provide comparable measurements, and measurements of <10 nm PNC are needed for full evaluation of the health effects of this size fraction.