Search Results

Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Item
    Aerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particles
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Schoenberg, Pontus von; Tunved, Peter; Grahn, Håkan; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Krejci, Radovan; Brännström, Niklas
    In the event of a failure of a nuclear power plant with release of radioactive material into the atmosphere, dispersion modelling is used to understand how the released radioactivity is spread. For the dispersion of particles, Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs) are commonly used, in which model particles, representing the released material, are transported through the atmosphere. These model particles are usually inert and undergo only first-order processes such as dry deposition and simplified wet deposition along the path through the atmosphere. Aerosol dynamic processes including coagulation, condensational growth, chemical interactions, formation of new particles and interaction with new aerosol sources are usually neglected in such models. The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of these advanced aerosol dynamic processes if they were to be included in LPDM simulations for use in radioactive preparedness. In this investigation, a fictitious failure of a nuclear power plant is studied for three geographically and atmospherically different sites. The incident was simulated with a Lagrangian single-trajectory box model with a new simulation for each hour throughout a year to capture seasonal variability of meteorology and variation in the ambient aerosol. (a) We conclude that modelling of wet deposition by incorporating an advanced cloud parameterization is advisable, since it significantly influence simulated levels of airborne and deposited activity including radioactive hotspots, and (b) we show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations that adopt a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions. The results highlight a potential necessity for implementation of more detailed representation of general aerosol dynamic processes into LPDMs in order to cover the full range of possible environmental characteristics that can apply during a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere.
  • Item
    A phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sites
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Bousiotis, Dimitrios; Pope, Francis D.; Beddows, David C. S.; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jakob Klenø; Nordstrøm, Claus; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Portin, Harri; Petäjä, Tuukka; Perez, Noemi; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vratolis, Stergios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Tuch, Thomas; Harrison, Roy M.
    New particle formation (NPF) events occur almost everywhere in the world and can play an important role as a particle source. The frequency and characteristics of NPF events vary spatially, and this variability is yet to be fully understood. In the present study, long-term particle size distribution datasets (minimum of 3 years) from 13 sites of various land uses and climates from across Europe were studied, and NPF events, deriving from secondary formation and not traffic-related nucleation, were extracted and analysed. The frequency of NPF events was consistently found to be higher at rural background sites, while the growth and formation rates of newly formed particles were higher at roadsides (though in many cases differences between the sites were small), underlining the importance of the abundance of condensable compounds of anthropogenic origin found there. The growth rate was higher in summer at all rural background sites studied. The urban background sites presented the highest uncertainty due to greater variability compared to the other two types of site. The origin of incoming air masses and the specific conditions associated with them greatly affect the characteristics of NPF events. In general, cleaner air masses present higher probability for NPF events, while the more polluted ones show higher growth rates. However, different patterns of NPF events were found, even at sites in close proximity (<ĝ€¯200ĝ€¯km), due to the different local conditions at each site. Region-wide events were also studied and were found to be associated with the same conditions as local events, although some variability was found which was associated with the different seasonality of the events at two neighbouring sites. NPF events were responsible for an increase in the number concentration of ultrafine particles of more than 400ĝ€¯% at rural background sites on the day of their occurrence. The degree of enhancement was less at urban sites due to the increased contribution of other sources within the urban environment. It is evident that, while some variables (such as solar radiation intensity, relative humidity, or the concentrations of specific pollutants) appear to have a similar influence on NPF events across all sites, it is impossible to predict the characteristics of NPF events at a site using just these variables, due to the crucial role of local conditions. © Author(s) 2021.
  • Item
    Terrestrial or marine – indications towards the origin of ice-nucleating particles during melt season in the European Arctic up to 83.7° N
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Hartmann, Markus; Gong, Xianda; Kecorius, Simonas; van Pinxteren, Manuela; Vogl, Teresa; Welti, André; Wex, Heike; Zeppenfeld, Sebastian; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank
    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) initiate the primary ice formation in clouds at temperatures above ca. -38gC and have an impact on precipitation formation, cloud optical properties, and cloud persistence. Despite their roles in both weather and climate, INPs are not well characterized, especially in remote regions such as the Arctic. We present results from a ship-based campaign to the European Arctic during May to July 2017. We deployed a filter sampler and a continuous-flow diffusion chamber for offline and online INP analyses, respectively. We also investigated the ice nucleation properties of samples from different environmental compartments, i.e., the sea surface microlayer (SML), the bulk seawater (BSW), and fog water. Concentrations of INPs (NINP) in the air vary between 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes at any particular temperature and are, except for the temperatures above -10gC and below -32gC, lower than in midlatitudes. In these temperature ranges, INP concentrations are the same or even higher than in the midlatitudes. By heating of the filter samples to 95gC for 1ĝ€¯h, we found a significant reduction in ice nucleation activity, i.e., indications that the INPs active at warmer temperatures are biogenic. At colder temperatures the INP population was likely dominated by mineral dust. The SML was found to be enriched in INPs compared to the BSW in almost all samples. The enrichment factor (EF) varied mostly between 1 and 10, but EFs as high as 94.97 were also observed. Filtration of the seawater samples with 0.2ĝ€¯μm syringe filters led to a significant reduction in ice activity, indicating the INPs are larger and/or are associated with particles larger than 0.2ĝ€¯μm. A closure study showed that aerosolization of SML and/or seawater alone cannot explain the observed airborne NINP unless significant enrichment of INP by a factor of 105 takes place during the transfer from the ocean surface to the atmosphere. In the fog water samples with -3.47gC, we observed the highest freezing onset of any sample. A closure study connecting NINP in fog water and the ambient NINP derived from the filter samples shows good agreement of the concentrations in both compartments, which indicates that INPs in the air are likely all activated into fog droplets during fog events. In a case study, we considered a situation during which the ship was located in the marginal sea ice zone and NINP levels in air and the SML were highest in the temperature range above -10gC. Chlorophyll a measurements by satellite remote sensing point towards the waters in the investigated region being biologically active. Similar slopes in the temperature spectra suggested a connection between the INP populations in the SML and the air. Air mass history had no influence on the observed airborne INP population. Therefore, we conclude that during the case study collected airborne INPs originated from a local biogenic probably marine source. © Author(s) 2021.
  • Item
    A global study of hygroscopicity-driven light-scattering enhancement in the context of other in situ aerosol optical properties
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Titos, Gloria; Burgos, María A.; Zieger, Paul; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Baltensperger, Urs; Jefferson, Anne; Sherman, James; Weingartner, Ernest; Henzing, Bas; Luoma, Krista; O'Dowd, Colin; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Andrews, Elisabeth
    The scattering and backscattering enhancement factors (f (RH) and fb(RH)) describe how aerosol particle light scattering and backscattering, respectively, change with relative humidity (RH). They are important parameters in estimating direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). In this study we use the dataset presented in Burgos et al. (2019) that compiles f (RH) and fb(RH) measurements at three wavelengths (i.e., 450, 550 and 700 nm) performed with tandem nephelometer systems at multiple sites around the world. We present an overview of f (RH) and fb(RH) based on both long-term and campaign observations from 23 sites representing a range of aerosol types. The scattering enhancement shows a strong variability from site to site, with no clear pattern with respect to the total scattering coefficient. In general, higher f (RH) is observed at Arctic and marine sites, while lower values are found at urban and desert sites, although a consistent pattern as a function of site type is not observed. The backscattering enhancement fb(RH) is consistently lower than f (RH) at all sites, with the difference between f (RH) and fb(RH) increasing for aerosol with higher f (RH). This is consistent with Mie theory, which predicts higher enhancement of the light scattering in the forward than in the backward direction as the particle takes up water. Our results show that the scattering enhancement is higher for PM1 than PM10 at most sites, which is also supported by theory due to the change in scattering efficiency with the size parameter that relates particle size and the wavelength of incident light. At marine-influenced sites this difference is enhanced when coarse particles (likely sea salt) predominate. For most sites, f (RH) is observed to increase with increasing wavelength, except at sites with a known dust influence where the spectral dependence of f (RH) is found to be low or even exhibit the opposite pattern. The impact of RH on aerosol properties used to calculate radiative forcing (e.g., single-scattering albedo, w0, and backscattered fraction, b) is evaluated. The single-scattering albedo generally increases with RH, while b decreases. The net effect of aerosol hygroscopicity on radiative forcing efficiency (RFE) is an increase in the absolute forcing effect (negative sign) by a factor of up to 4 at RH D 90 % compared to dry conditions (RH < 40 %). Because of the scarcity of scattering enhancement measurements, an attempt was made to use other more commonly available aerosol parameters (i.e., w0 and scattering Ångström exponent, asp) to parameterize f (RH). The majority of sites (75 %) showed a consistent trend with w0 (higher f (RH D 85 %) for higher w0), while no clear pattern was observed between f (RH D 85 %) and asp. This suggests that aerosol w0 is more promising than asp as a surrogate for the scattering enhancement factor, although neither parameter is ideal. Nonetheless, the qualitative relationship observed between w0 and f (RH) could serve as a constraint on global model simulations. © 2021 The Author(s).
  • Item
    Intercomparison and characterization of 23 Aethalometers under laboratory and ambient air conditions: procedures and unit-to-unit variabilities
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Cuesta-Mosquera, Andrea; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Müller, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sascha; Minguillón, María Cruz; Briel, Björn; Buckley, Paul; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Fernández-García, Javier; Fernández-Amado, María; Ferreira De Brito, Joel; Riffault, Veronique; Flentje, Harald; Heffernan, Eimear; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Keernik, Hannes; Marmureanu, Luminita; Luoma, Krista; Marinoni, Angela; Pikridas, Michael; Schauer, Gerhard; Serfozo, Norbert; Servomaa, Henri; Titos, Gloria; Yus-Díez, Jesús; Zioła, Natalia; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Aerosolized black carbon is monitored worldwide to quantify its impact on air quality and climate. Given its importance, measurements of black carbon mass concentrations must be conducted with instruments operating in qualitychecked and ensured conditions to generate data which are reliable and comparable temporally and geographically. In this study, we report the results from the largest characterization and intercomparison of filter-based absorption photometers, the Aethalometer model AE33, belonging to several European monitoring networks. Under controlled laboratory conditions, a total of 23 instruments measured mass concentrations of black carbon from three wellcharacterized aerosol sources: synthetic soot, nigrosin particles, and ambient air from the urban background of Leipzig, Germany. The objective was to investigate the individual performance of the instruments and their comparability; we analyzed the response of the instruments to the different aerosol sources and the impact caused by the use of obsolete filter materials and the application of maintenance activities. Differences in the instrument-to-instrument variabilities from equivalent black carbon (eBC) concentrations reported at 880 nm were determined before maintenance activities (for soot measurements, average deviation from total least square regression was-2.0% and the range-16% to 7 %; for nigrosin measurements, average deviation was 0.4% and the range-15% to 17 %), and after they were carried out (for soot measurements, average deviation was-1.0% and the range-14% to 8 %; for nigrosin measurements, the average deviation was 0.5%and the range-12%to 15 %). The deviations are in most of the cases explained by the type of filter material employed by the instruments, the total particle load on the filter, and the flow calibration. The results of this intercomparison activity show that relatively small unit-to-unit variability of AE33-based particle light absorbing measurements is possible with wellmaintained instruments. It is crucial to follow the guidelines for maintenance activities and the use of the proper filter tape in the AE33 to ensure high quality and comparable black carbon (BC) measurements among international observational networks. © 2021 Author(s). This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • Item
    Optical properties of coated black carbon aggregates: numerical simulations, radiative forcing estimates, and size-resolved parameterization scheme
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Romshoo, Baseerat; Müller, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sascha; Saturno, Jorge; Nowak, Andreas; Ciupek, Krzysztof; Quincey, Paul; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The formation of black carbon fractal aggregates (BCFAs) from combustion and subsequent ageing involves several stages resulting in modifications of particle size, morphology, and composition over time. To understand and quantify how each of these modifications influences the BC radiative forcing, the optical properties of BCFAs are modelled. Owing to the high computational time involved in numerical modelling, there are some gaps in terms of data coverage and knowledge regarding how optical properties of coated BCFAs vary over the range of different factors (size, shape, and composition). This investigation bridged those gaps by following a state-of-the-art description scheme of BCFAs based on morphology, composition, and wavelength. The BCFA optical properties were investigated as a function of the radius of the primary particle (ao), fractal dimension (Df), fraction of organics (forganics), wavelength (λ), and mobility diameter (Dmob). The optical properties are calculated using the multiple-sphere T-matrix (MSTM) method. For the first time, the modelled optical properties of BC are expressed in terms of mobility diameter (Dmob), making the results more relevant and relatable for ambient and laboratory BC studies. Amongst size, morphology, and composition, all the optical properties showed the highest variability with changing size. The cross sections varied from 0.0001 to 0.1 μm2 for BCFA Dmob ranging from 24 to 810nm. It has been shown that MACBC and single-scattering albedo (SSA) are sensitive to morphology, especially for larger particles with Dmobg > 100 nm. Therefore, while using the simplified core-shell representation of BC in global models, the influence of morphology on radiative forcing estimations might not be adequately considered. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) varied from 1.06 up to 3.6 and increased with the fraction of organics (forganics). Measurement results of AAE ≫1 are often misinterpreted as biomass burning aerosol, it was observed that the AAE of purely black carbon particles can be ≫1 in the case of larger BC particles. The values of the absorption enhancement factor (Eλ) via coating were found to be between 1.01 and 3.28 in the visible spectrum. The Eλ was derived from Mie calculations for coated volume equivalent spheres and from MSTM for coated BCFAs. Mie-calculated enhancement factors were found to be larger by a factor of 1.1 to 1.5 than their corresponding values calculated from the MSTM method. It is shown that radiative forcings are highly sensitive to modifications in morphology and composition. The black carbon radiative forcing FTOA (Wgm-2) decreases up to 61% as the BCFA becomes more compact, indicating that global model calculations should account for changes in morphology. A decrease of more than 50% in FTOA was observed as the organic content of the particle increased up to 90%. The changes in the ageing factors (composition and morphology) in tandem result in an overall decrease in the FTOA. A parameterization scheme for optical properties of BC fractal aggregates was developed, which is applicable for modelling, ambient, and laboratory-based BC studies. The parameterization scheme for the cross sections (extinction, absorption, and scattering), single-scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (g) of pure and coated BCFAs as a function of Dmob were derived from tabulated results of the MSTM method. Spanning an extensive parameter space, the developed parameterization scheme showed promisingly high accuracy up to 98% for the cross sections, 97% for single-scattering albedos (SSAs), and 82% for the asymmetry parameter (g). © 2021 The Author(s).
  • Item
    Changes in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdowns
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : European Geosciences Union, 2021) Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Platt, Stephen M.; Eckhardt, Sabine; Lund Myhre, Cathrine; Laj, Paolo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Backman, John; Brem, Benjamin T.; Fiebig, Markus; Flentje, Harald; Marinoni, Angela; Pandolfi, Marco; Yus-Dìez, Jesus; Prats, Natalia; Putaud, Jean P.; Sellegri, Karine; Sorribas, Mar; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Vratolis, Stergios; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stohl, Andreas
    Following the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan (China) and its spread to the rest of the world, the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Without effective treatment in the initial pandemic phase, social distancing and mandatory quarantines were introduced as the only available preventative measure. In contrast to the detrimental societal impacts, air quality improved in all countries in which strict lockdowns were applied, due to lower pollutant emissions. Here we investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe on ambient black carbon (BC), which affects climate and damages health, using in situ observations from 17 European stations in a Bayesian inversion framework. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe (20 % in Italy, 40 % in Germany, 34 % in Spain, 22 % in France) during lockdowns compared to the same period in the previous 5 years, which is partially attributed to COVID-19 measures. BC temporal variation in the countries enduring the most drastic restrictions showed the most distinct lockdown impacts. Increased particle light absorption in the beginning of the lockdown, confirmed by assimilated satellite and remote sensing data, suggests residential combustion was the dominant BC source. Accordingly, in central and Eastern Europe, which experienced lower than average temperatures, BC was elevated compared to the previous 5 years. Nevertheless, an average decrease of 11 % was seen for the whole of Europe compared to the start of the lockdown period, with the highest peaks in France (42 %), Germany (21 %), UK (13 %), Spain (11 %) and Italy (8 %). Such a decrease was not seen in the previous years, which also confirms the impact of COVID-19 on the European emissions of BC.