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    The influence of impactor size cut-off shift caused by hygroscopic growth on particulate matter loading and composition measurements
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2018) Chen, Ying; Wild, Oliver; Wang, Yu; Ran, Liang; Teich, Monique; Größ, Johannes; Wang, Lina; Spindler, Gerald; Herrmann, Hartmut; van Pinxteren, Dominik; McFiggans, Gordon; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The mass loading and composition of atmospheric particles are important in determining their climate and health effects, and are typically measured by filter sampling. However, particle sampling under ambient conditions can lead to a shift in the size cut-off threshold induced by hygroscopic growth, and the influence of this on measurement of particle loading and composition has not been adequately quantified. Here, we propose a method to assess this influence based on κ-Köhler theory. A global perspective is presented based on previously reported annual climatological values of hygroscopic properties, meteorological parameters and particle volume size distributions. Measurements at background sites in Europe may be more greatly influenced by the cut-off shift than those from other continents, with a median influence of 10–20% on the total mass of sampled particles. However, the influence is generally much smaller (<7%) at urban sites, and is negligible for dust and particles in the Arctic. Sea-salt particles experience the largest influence (median value ∼50%), resulting from their large size, high hygroscopicity and the high relative humidity (RH) in marine air-masses. We estimate a difference of ∼30% in this influence of sea-salt particle sampling between relatively dry (RH = 60%) and humid (RH = 90%) conditions. Given the variation in the cut-off shift in different locations and at different times, a consistent consideration of this influence using the approach we introduce here is critical for observational studies of the long-term and spatial distribution of particle loading and composition, and crucial for robust validation of aerosol modules in modelling studies.
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    Aerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Ultrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no other studies reported such high number concentration of ultrafine refractory particles under ambient conditions. Inverse modeling of emission factors of refractory particle number size distributions revealed that diesel-fed public utility Jeepneys, commonly used for public transportation, are responsible for 94% of total roadside emitted refractory particle mass. The observed results showed that the majority of urban pollution in Metro Manila is dominated by carbonaceous aerosol. This suggests that PM10 or PM2.5 metrics do not fully describe possible health related effects in this kind of urban environments. Extremely high concentrations of ultrafine particles have been and will continue to induce adverse health related effects, because of their potential toxicity. We imply that in megacities, where the major fraction of particulates originates from the transport sector, PM10 or PM2.5 mass concentration should be complemented by legislative measurements of equivalent black carbon mass concentration.
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    Influence of biomass burning on mixing state of sub-micron aerosol particles in the North China Plain
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Kecorius, Simonas; Ma, Nan; Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Shenglan; Gröβ, Johannes; Spindler, Gerald; Müller, Konrad; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Hu, Min; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Particulate emissions from crop residue burning decrease the air quality as well as influence aerosol radiative properties on a regional scale. The North China Plain (NCP) is known for the large scale biomass burning (BB) of field residues, which often results in heavy haze pollution episodes across the region. We have been able to capture a unique BB episode during the international CAREBeijing-NCP intensive field campaign in Wangdu in the NCP (38.6°N, 115.2°E) from June to July 2014. It was found that aerosol particles originating from this BB event showed a significantly different mixing state compared with clean and non-BB pollution episodes. BB originated particles showed a narrower probability density function (PDF) of shrink factor (SF). And the maximum was found at shrink factor of 0.6, which is higher than in other episodes. The non-volatile particle number fraction during the BB episode decreased to 3% and was the lowest measured value compared to all other predefined episodes. To evaluate the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), SSA at different RHs was simulated using the measured aerosol physical-chemical properties. The differences between the calculated SSA for biomass burning, clean and pollution episodes are significant, meaning that the variation of SSA in different pollution conditions needs to be considered in the evaluation of aerosol direct radiative effects in the NCP. And the calculated SSA was found to be quite sensitive on the mixing state of BC, especially at low-RH condition. The simulated SSA was also compared with the measured values. For all the three predefined episodes, the measured SSA are very close to the calculated ones with assumed mixing states of homogeneously internal and core-shell internal mixing, indicating that both of the conception models are appropriate for the calculation of ambient SSA in the NCP.