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    Study of the relative humidity dependence of aerosol light-scattering in southern Spain
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Titos, Gloria; Lyamani, Hassan; Cazorla, Alberto; Sorribas, Mar; Foyo-Moreno, Inmaculada; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas
    This investigation focuses on the characterisation of the aerosol particle hygroscopicity. Aerosol particle optical properties were measured at Granada, Spain, during winter and spring seasons in 2013. Measured optical properties included particle light-absorption coefficient (σap) and particle light-scattering coefficient (σsp) at dry conditions and at relative humidity (RH) of 85±10%. The scattering enhancement factor, f(RH=85%), had a mean value of 1.5±0.2 and 1.6±0.3 for winter and spring campaigns, respectively. Cases of high scattering enhancement were more frequent during the spring campaign with 27% of the f(RH=85%) values above 1.8, while during the winter campaign only 8% of the data were above 1.8. A Saharan dust event (SDE), which occurred during the spring campaign, was characterised by a predominance of large particles with low hygroscopicity. For the day when the SDE was more intense, a mean daily value of f(RH=85%)=1.3±0.2 was calculated. f(RH=85%) diurnal cycle showed two minima during the morning and afternoon traffic rush hours due to the increase in non-hygroscopic particles such as black carbon and road dust. This was confirmed by small values of the single-scattering albedo and the scattering Ångstrom exponent. A significant correlation between f(RH=85%) and the fraction of particulate organic matter and sulphate was obtained. Finally, the impact of ambient RH in the aerosol radiative forcing was found to be very small due to the low ambient RH. For high RH values, the hygroscopic effect should be taken into account since the aerosol forcing efficiency changed from −13 W/m2 at dry conditions to −17 W/m2 at RH=85%.
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    Influence of water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering coefficients of the Central European aerosol
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Zieger, Paul; Fierz-Schmidhauser, Rahel; Poulain, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Spindler, Gerald; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest
    The influence of aerosol water uptake on the aerosol particle light scattering was examined at the regional continental research site Melpitz, Germany. The scattering enhancement factor f(RH), defined as the aerosol particle scattering coefficient at a certain relative humidity (RH) divided by its dry value, was measured using a humidified nephelometer. The chemical composition and other microphysical properties were measured in parallel. f(RH) showed a strong variation, e.g. with values between 1.2 and 3.6 at RH85% and l550 nm. The chemical composition was found to be the main factor determining the magnitude of f(RH), since the magnitude of f(RH) clearly correlated with the inorganic mass fraction measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Hysteresis within the recorded humidograms was observed and explained by long-range transported sea salt. A closure study using Mie theory showed the consistency of the measured parameters.