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    Simultaneous lidar observations of temperatures and waves in the polar middle atmosphere on the east and west side of the Scandinavian mountains: A case study on 19/20 January 2003
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2004) Blum, U.; Fricke, K.H.; Baumgarten, G.; Schöch, A.
    Atmospheric gravity waves have been the subject of intense research for several decades because of their extensive effects on the atmospheric circulation and the temperature structure. The U. Bonn lidar at the Esrange and the ALOMAR RMR lidar at the Andøya Rocket Range are located in northern Scandinavia 250 km apart on the east and west side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. During January and February 2003 both lidar systems conducted measurements and retrieved atmospheric temperatures. On 19/20 January 2003 simultaneous measurements for more than 7 h were possible. Although during most of the campaign time the atmosphere was not transparent for the propagation of orographically induced gravity waves, they were nevertheless observed at both lidar stations with considerable amplitudes during these simultaneous measurements. And while the source of the observed waves cannot be determined unambiguously, the observations show many characteristics of orographically excited gravity waves. The wave patterns at ALOMAR show a random distribution with time whereas at the Esrange a persistency in the wave patterns is observable. This persistency can also be found in the distribution of the most powerful vertical wavelengths. The mode values are both at about 5 km vertical wavelength, however the distributions are quite different, narrow at the Esrange with values from λz=2–6 km and broad at ALOMAR, covering λz=1–12 km vertical wavelength. In particular the difference between the observations at ALOMAR and at the Esrange can be understood by different orographic conditions while the propagation conditions were quite similar. At both stations the waves deposit energy in the atmosphere with increasing altitude, which leads to a decrease of the observed gravity wave potential energy density with altitude. The meteorological situation during these measurements was different from common winter situations. The ground winds were mostly northerlies, changed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to westerlies and returned to northerlies in the middle stratosphere.
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    Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Robertson, S.; Horányi, M.; Knappmiller, S.; Sternovsky, Z.; Holzworth, R.; Shimogawa, M.; Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K.; Gumbel, J.; Megner, L.; Baumgarten, G.; Latteck, R.; Rapp, M.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hervig, M.E.
    MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer) is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions), 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately). Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3) and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm) are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km. The second flight into PMSE alone at 84–88 km, found only small number densities (~500 cm−3) of particles >3 nm in a narrow altitude range, 86.5–87.5 km. Both positive (~2000 cm−3) and negative (~4500 cm−3) particles with radii 1–2 nm were detected from 85–87.5 km.
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    The atmospheric background situation in northern Scandinavia during January/February 2003 in the context of the MaCWAVE campaign
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2006) Blum, U.; Baumgarten, G.; Schöch, A.; Kirkwood, S.; Naujokat, B.; Fricke, K.H.
    The atmosphere background wind field controls the propagation of gravity waves from the troposphere through the stratosphere into the mesosphere. During January 2003 the MaCWAVE campaign took place at Esrange, with the purpose of observing vertically ascending waves induced by orography. Temperature data from the U. Bonn lidar at Esrange (68° N/21° E) and the ALOMAR RMR lidar (69° N/16° E), wind data from Esrange MST radar ESRAD, as well as wind data from the ECMWF T106 model, are used to analyse the atmospheric background situation and its effect on mountain wave propagation during January/February 2003. Critical levels lead to dissipation of vertically ascending waves, thus mountain waves are not observable above those levels. In the first half of January a minor as well as a major stratospheric warming dominated the meteorological background situation. These warmings led to a wind reversal, thus to critical level filtering and consequently prevented gravity waves from propagating to high altitudes. While the troposphere was not transparent for stationary gravity waves most of the time, there was a period of eight days following the major warming with a transparent stratosphere, with conditions allowing gravity waves generated in the lower troposphere to penetrate the stratosphere up to the stratopause and sometimes even into the lower mesosphere. In the middle of February a minor stratospheric warming occurred, which again led to critical levels such that gravity waves were not able to ascend above the middle stratosphere. Due to the unfavourable troposphere and lower stratosphere conditions for gravity wave excitation and propagation, the source of the observed waves in the middle atmosphere is probably different from orography.
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    Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: Detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2005) Spang, R.; Remedios, J.J.; Kramer, L.J.; Poole, L.R.; Fromm, M.D.; Müller, M.; Baumgarten, G.; Konopka, P.
    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on ENVISAT has made extensive measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003. A PSC detection method based on a ratio of radiances (the cloud index) has been implemented for MIPAS and is validated in this study with respect to ground-based lidar and space borne occultation measurements. A very good correspondence in PSC sighting and cloud altitude between MIPAS detections and those of other instruments is found for cloud index values of less than four. Comparisons with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III are used to further show that the sensitivity of the MIPAS detection method for this threshold value of cloud index is approximately equivalent to an extinction limit of 10-3km-1 at 1022nm, a wavelength used by solar occultation experiments. The MIPAS cloud index data are subsequently used to examine, for the first time with any technique, the evolution of PSCs throughout the Arctic polar vortex up to a latitude close to 90° north on a near-daily basis. We find that the winter of 2002/2003 is characterised by three phases of very different PSC activity. First, an unusual, extremely cold phase in the first three weeks of December resulted in high PSC occurrence rates. This was followed by a second phase of only moderate PSC activity from 5-13 January, separated from the first phase by a minor warming event. Finally there was a third phase from February to the end of March where only sporadic and mostly weak PSC events took place. The composition of PSCs during the winter period has also been examined, exploiting in particular an infra-red spectral signature which is probably characteristic of NAT. The MIPAS observations show the presence of these particles on a number of occasions in December but very rarely in January. The PSC type differentiation from MIPAS indicates that future comparisons of PSC observations with microphysical and denitrification models might be revealing about aspects of solid particle existence and location.
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    First observation of one noctilucent cloud by a twin lidar in two different directions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2002) Baumgarten, G.; Lübken, F.-J.; Fricke, K.-H.
    In the early morning hours of 14 July 1999, a noctilucent cloud (NLC) was observed simultaneously by the two branches of a twin lidar system located at the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway (69° N). The telescopes of the two lidars were pointing vertical (L^) and off the zenith by 30° (L30°). The two lidars detected an enhancement in the altitude profile of backscattered light (relative to the molecular background) for more than 5 h, starting approximately at 01:00 UT. These measurements constitute the detection of one NLC by two lidars under different directions and allow for a detailed study of the morphology of the NLC layer. A cross-correlation analysis of the NLC signals demonstrates that the main structures seen by both lidars are practically identical. This implies that a temporal evolution of the microphysics within the NLC during its drift from one lidar beam to the other is negligible. From the time delay of the NLC structures, a drift velocity of 55–65 m/s is derived which agrees nicely with radar wind measurements. During the observation period, the mean NLC altitude decreases by ~0.5 km/h (=14 cm/s) at both observation volumes. Further-more, the NLC is consistently observed approximately 500 m lower in altitude at L30° compared to L^. Supplementing these data by observations from rocket-borne and ground-based instruments, we show that the general downward progression of the NLC layer through the night, as seen by both lidars, is caused by a combination of particle sedimentation by 4–5 cm/s and a downward directed vertical wind by 9–10 cm/s, whereas a tilt of the layer in drift direction can be excluded.
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    Large mesospheric ice particles at exceptionally high altitudes
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Megner, L.; Khaplanov, M.; Baumgarten, G.; Gumbel, J.; Stegman, J.; Strelnikov, B.; Robertson, S.
    We here report on the characteristics of exceptionally high Noctilucent clouds (NLC) that were detected with rocket photometers during the ECOMA/MASS campaign at Andøya, Norway 2007. The results from three separate flights are shown and discussed in connection to lidar measurements. Both the lidar measurements and the large difference between various rocket passages through the NLC show that the cloud layer was inhomogeneous on large scales. Two passages showed a particularly high, bright and vertically extended cloud, reaching to approximately 88 km. Long time series of lidar measurements show that NLC this high are very rare, only one NLC measurement out of thousand reaches above 87 km. The NLC is found to consist of three distinct layers. All three were bright enough to allow for particle size retrieval by phase function analysis, even though the lowest layer proved too horizontally inhomogeneous to obtain a trustworthy result. Large particles, corresponding to an effective radius of 50 nm, were observed both in the middle and top of the NLC. The present cloud does not comply with the conventional picture that NLC ice particles nucleate near the temperature minimum and grow to larger sizes as they sediment to lower altitudes. Strong up-welling, likely caused by gravity wave activity, is required to explain its characteristics.
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    The ECOMA 2007 campaign: Rocket observations and numerical modelling of aerosol particle charging and plasma depletion in a PMSE/NLC layer
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Brattli, A.; Lie-Svendsen, Ø.; Svenes, K.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Strelnikova, I.; Rapp, M.; Latteck, R.; Torkar, K.; Gumbel, J.; Megner, L.; Baumgarten, G.
    The ECOMA series of rocket payloads use a set of aerosol particle, plasma, and optical instruments to study the properties of aerosol particles and their interaction with the ambient plasma environment in the polar mesopause region. In August 2007 the ECOMA-3 payload was launched into a region with Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) and noctilucent clouds (NLC). An electron depletion was detected in a broad region between 83 and 88 km, coincident with enhanced density of negatively charged aerosol particles. We also find evidence for positive ion depletion in the same region. Charge neutrality requires that a population of positively charged particles smaller than 2 nm and with a density of at least 2×108 m−3 must also have been present in the layer, undetected by the instruments. A numerical model for the charging of aerosol particles and their interaction with the ambient plasma is used to analyse the results, showing that high aerosol particle densities are required in order to explain the observed ion density depletion. The model also shows that a very high photoionisation rate is required for the particles smaller than 2 nm to become positively charged, indicating that these may have a lower work function than pure water ice.
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    Long-term lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds at Esrange in northern Sweden
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2005) Blum, U.; Fricke, K.H.; Müller, K.P.; Siebert, J.; Baumgarten, G.
    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in the depletion of polar ozone. The type of cloud and the length of time for which it exists are crucial for the amount of chlorine activation during the polar night. The Bonn University backscatter lidar at Esrange in northern Sweden (68◦N, 21◦E) is well equipped for long-term observation and classification of these clouds. Nearly continuous measurements through several winters are rare, in particular in wave-active regions like Esrange. Lidar measurements have been performed each winter since 1997—a total of more than 2000 h of observation time has been accumulated, including more than 300 h with PSCs. Analysis of this unique data set leads to a classification scheme with four different scattering characteristics which can be associated with four different cloud types: (1) supercooled ternary solution (STS), (2) nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), (3) ice and (4) mixtures of solid and liquid particles. The analysis of observations over seven winters gives an overview of the frequency of appearance of the individual PSC types. Most of the clouds contain layers of different PSC types. The analysis of these layers shows STS and mixed clouds to occur most frequently, with more than 39% and 37% of all PSC observations, respectively, whereas NAT (15%) and ice clouds (9%) are seen only rarely. The lidar is located close to the Scandinavian mountain ridge, which is a major source of orographically induced gravity waves that can rapidly cool the atmosphere below cloud formation temperatures. Comparing the individual existence temperature of the observed cloud type with the synoptic-scale temperature provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) gives information on the frequency of synoptically and wave-induced PSCs. Further, the analysis of ECMWF temperature and wind data gives an estimate of the transparency of the atmosphere to stationary gravity waves. During more than 80% of all PSC observations in synoptic-scale temperatures which were too warm the atmosphere was transparent for stationary gravity waves. Our measurements show that dynamically induced cooling is crucial for the existence of PSCs above Esrange. In particular ice PSCs are observed only in situations where there are gravity waves.
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    The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: Morphology on global to local scales
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Baumgarten, G.; Fiedler, J.; Fricke, K.H.; Gerding, M.; Hervig, M.; Hoffmann, P.; Müller, N.; Pautet, P.-D.; Rapp, M.; Robert, C.; Rusch, D.; von Savigny, C.; Singer, W.
    During the ECOMA/MASS rocket campaign large scale NLC/PMC was observed by satellite, lidar and camera from polar to mid latitudes. We examine the observations from different instruments to investigate the morphology of the cloud. Satellite observations show a planetary wave 2 structure. Lidar observations from Kühlungsborn (54° N), Esrange (68° N) and ALOMAR (69° N) show a highly dynamic NLC layer. Under favorable solar illumination the cloud is also observable by ground-based cameras. The cloud was detected by cameras from Trondheim (63° N), Juliusruh (55° N) and Kühlungsborn. We investigate planetary scale morphology and local scale gravity wave structures, important for the interpretation of the small scale rocket soundings. We compare in detail the lidar observations with the NLC structure observed by the camera in Trondheim. The ALOMAR RMR-lidar observed only a faint NLC during the ECOMA launch window, while the camera in Trondheim showed a strong NLC display in the direction of ALOMAR. Using the high resolution camera observations (t~30 s, Δx<5 km) and the wind information from the meteor radar at ALOMAR we investigate the formation and destruction of NLC structures. We observe that the NLC brightness is reduced by a factor of 20–40 within 100 s which can be caused by a temperature about 15 K above the frostpoint temperature. A horizontal temperature gradient of more than 3 K/km is estimated.
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    Observation of an unusual mid-stratospheric aerosol layer in the Arctic: Possible sources and implications for polar vortex dynamics
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2003) Gerding, M.; Baumgarten, G.; Blum, U.; Thayer, J.P.; Fricke, K.-H.; Neuber, R.; Fiedler, J.
    By the beginning of winter 2000/2001, a mysterious stratospheric aerosol layer had been detected by four different Arctic lidar stations. The aerosol layer was observed first on 16 November 2000, at an altitude of about 38 km near Søndre Strømfjord, Greenland (67° N, 51° W) and on 19 November 2000, near Andenes, Norway (69° N, 16° E). Subsequently, in early December 2000, the aerosol layer was observed near Kiruna, Sweden (68° N, 21° E) and Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen (79° N, 12° E). No mid-latitude lidar station observed the presence of aerosols in this altitude region. The layer persisted throughout the winter 2000/2001, at least up to 12 February 2001. In November 2000, the backscatter ratio at a wavelength of 532 nm was up to 1.1, with a FWHM of about 2.5 km. By early February 2001, the layer had sedimented from an altitude of 38 km to about 26 km. Measurements at several wavelengths by the ALOMAR and Koldewey lidars indicate the particle size was between 30 and 50 nm. Depolarisation measurements reveal that the particles in the layer are aspherical, hence solid. In the mid-stratosphere, the ambient atmospheric temperature was too high to support in situ formation or existence of cloud particles consisting of ice or an acid-water solution. Furthermore, in the year 2000 there was no volcanic eruption, which could have injected aerosols into the upper stratosphere. Therefore, other origins of the aerosol, such as meteoroid debris, condensed rocket fuel, or aerosols produced under the influence of charged solar particles, will be discussed in the paper. Trajectory calculations illustrate the path of the aerosol cloud within the polar vortex and are used to link the observations at the different lidar sites. From the descent rate of the layer and particle sedimentation rates, the mean down-ward motion of air within the polar vortex was estimated to be about 124 m/d between 35 and 30 km, with higher values at the edge of the vortex.