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    The influence of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of a cavity attenuated phase shift-based extinction monitor (CAPS PMex)
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Freedman, Andrew; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    The effect of the baseline drift on the resulting extinction values of three cavity attenuated phase shift-based extinction monitors (CAPS PMex) with different wavelengths and the respective correlation with NO2 was analysed for an urban background station. A drift of more than 0.8 Mm−1min−1 was observed for ambient air, with high probability caused by traffic-emissions-driven changes in carrier gas composition. The baseline drift leads to characteristic measurement artefacts for particle extinction. Artificial particle extinction values of approximately 4 Mm−1 were observed using a baseline period of 5 min. These values can be even higher for longer baseline periods. Two methods are shown to minimize this effect. Modified continuous baseline values are calculated in a post-processing step using simple linear interpolation and cubic smoothing splines. Both methods are useful to reduce artefacts, although the use of cubic smoothing splines gives slightly better results. The extinction artefacts are diminished and the effective scattering of the resulting extinction values is reduced by about 50 %.
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    Respiratory tract deposition of inhaled roadside ultrafine refractory particles in a polluted megacity of South-East Asia
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Löndahl, Jakob; Vallar, Edgar; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Idolor, Luisito F.; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Müller, Thomas; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Recent studies demonstrate that Black Carbon (BC) pollution in economically developing megacities remain higher than the values, which the World Health Organization considers to be safe. Despite the scientific evidence of the degrees of BC exposure, there is still a lack of understanding on how the severe levels of BC pollution affect human health in these regions. We consider information on the respiratory tract deposition dose (DD) of BC to be essential in understanding the link between personal exposure to air pollutants and corresponding health effects. In this work, we combine data on fine and ultrafine refractory particle number concentrations (BC proxy), and activity patterns to derive the respiratory tract deposited amounts of BC particles for the population of the highly polluted metropolitan area of Manila, Philippines. We calculated the total DD of refractory particles based on three metrics: refractory particle number, surface area, and mass concentrations. The calculated DD of total refractory particle number in Metro Manila was found to be 1.6 to 17 times higher than average values reported from Europe and the U.S. In the case of Manila, ultrafine particles smaller than 100 nm accounted for more than 90% of the total deposited refractory particle dose in terms of particle number. This work is a first attempt to quantitatively evaluate the DD of refractory particles and raise awareness in assessing pollution-related health effects in developing megacities. We demonstrate that the majority of the population may be highly affected by BC pollution, which is known to have negative health outcomes if no actions are taken to mitigate its emission. For the governments of such metropolitan areas, we suggest to revise currently existing environmental legislation, raise public awareness, and to establish supplementary monitoring of black carbon in parallel to already existing PM 10 and PM 2.5 measures. © 2019
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    An optical particle size spectrometer for aircraft-borne measurements in IAGOS-CARIBIC
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Hermann, Markus; Weigelt, Andreas; Assmann, Denise; Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Conrath, Thomas; Voigtländer, Jens; Heintzenberg, Jost; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Martinsson, Bengt G.; Deshler, Terry; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A.M.; Zahn, Andreas
    The particle number size distribution is an important parameter to characterize the atmospheric aerosol and its influence on the Earth's climate. Here we describe a new optical particle size spectrometer (OPSS) for measurements of the accumulation mode particle number size distribution in the tropopause region on board a passenger aircraft (IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System – Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A modified KS93 particle sensor from RION Co., Ltd., together with a new airflow system and a dedicated data acquisition system, is the key component of the CARIBIC OPSS. The instrument records individual particle pulse signal curves in the particle size range 130–1110 nm diameter (for a particle refractive index of 1.47-i0.006) together with a time stamp and thus allows the post-flight choice of the time resolution and the size distribution bin width. The CARIBIC OPSS has a 50 % particle detection diameter of 152 nm and a maximum asymptotic counting efficiency of 98 %. The instrument's measurement performance shows no pressure dependency and no particle coincidence for free tropospheric conditions. The size response function of the CARIBIC OPSS was obtained by a polystyrene latex calibration in combination with model calculations. Particle number size distributions measured with the new OPSS in the lowermost stratosphere agreed within a factor of 2 in concentration with balloon-borne measurements over western North America. Since June 2010 the CARIBIC OPSS is deployed once per month in the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory.
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    A new method to measure real-world respiratory tract deposition of inhaled ambient black carbon
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier Science, 2019) Madueño, Leizel; Kecorius, Simonas; Löndahl, Jakob; Müller, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sascha; Haudek, Andrea; Mardoñez, Valeria; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    In this study, we present the development of a mobile system to measure real-world total respiratory tract deposition of inhaled ambient black carbon (BC). Such information can be used to supplement the existing knowledge on air pollution-related health effects, especially in the regions where the use of standard methods and intricate instrumentation is limited. The study is divided in two parts. Firstly, we present the design of portable system and methodology to evaluate the exhaled air BC content. We demonstrate that under real-world conditions, the proposed system exhibit negligible particle losses, and can additionally be used to determine the minute ventilation. Secondly, exemplary experimental data from the system is presented. A feasibility study was conducted in the city of La Paz, Bolivia. In a pilot experiment, we found that the cumulative total respiratory tract deposition dose over 1-h commuting trip would result in approximately 2.6 μg of BC. This is up to 5 times lower than the values obtained from conjectural approach (e.g. using physical parameters from previously reported worksheets). Measured total respiratory tract deposited BC fraction varied from 39% to 48% during walking and commuting inside a micro-bus, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, no studies focusing on experimental determination of real-world deposition dose of BC have been performed in developing regions. This can be especially important because the BC mass concentration is significant and determines a large fraction of particle mass concentration. In this work, we propose a potential method, recommendations, as well as the limitations in establishing an easy and relatively cheap way to estimate the respiratory tract deposition of BC. In this study we present a novel method to measure real-world respiratory tract deposition dose of Black Carbon. Results from a pilot study in La Paz, Bolivia, are presented. © 2019 The Authors
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    In situ aerosol characterization at Cape Verde, Part 2: Parametrization of relative humidity- and wavelength-dependent aerosol optical properties
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Schladitz, Alexander; Müller, Thomas; Nordmann, Stephan; Tesche, Matthias; Silke Groß, Silke Groß; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gasteiger, Josef; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    An observation-based numerical study of humidity-dependent aerosol optical properties of mixed marine and Saharan mineral dust aerosol is presented. An aerosol model was developed based on measured optical and microphysical properties to describe the marine and Saharan dust aerosol at Cape Verde. A wavelength-dependent optical equivalent imaginary part of the refractive index and a scattering non-sphericity factor for Saharan dustwere derived. Simulations of humidity effects on optical properties by the aerosol model were validated with relative measurements of the extinction coefficient at ambient conditions. Parametrizations were derived to describe the humidity dependence of the extinction, scattering, and absorption coefficients as well as the asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo. For wavelengths (300–950 nm) and dry dust volume fractions (0–1), aerosol optical properties as a function of relative humidity (RH = 0–90%) can be calculated from tabulated parameters. For instance, at a wavelength of 550 nm, a volume fraction of 0.5 of dust on the total particle volume (dry conditions) and a RH of 90%, the enhancements for the scattering, extinction and absorption coefficients are 2.55, 2.46 and 1.04, respectively, while the enhancements for the asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo are 1.11 and 1.04.
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    Intercomparison of 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS 3321): Uncertainties in particle sizing and number size distribution
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Pfeifer, Sascha; Müller, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Zikova, Nadezda; dos Santos, Sebastiao Martins; Marinoni, Angela; Bischof, Oliver F.; Kykal, Carsten; Ries, Ludwig; Meinhardt, Frank; Aalto, Pasi; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Aerodynamic particle size spectrometers are a well-established method to measure number size distributions of coarse mode particles in the atmosphere. Quality assurance is essential for atmospheric observational aerosol networks to obtain comparable results with known uncertainties. In a laboratory study within the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure Network), 15 aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS model 3321, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) were compared with a focus on flow rates, particle sizing, and the unit-to-unit variability of the particle number size distribution. Flow rate deviations were relatively small (within a few percent), while the sizing accuracy was found to be within 10 % compared to polystyrene latex (PSL) reference particles. The unit-to-unit variability in terms of the particle number size distribution during this study was within 10 % to 20 % for particles in the range of 0.9 up to 3 µm, which is acceptable for atmospheric measurements. For particles smaller than that, the variability increased up to 60 %, probably caused by differences in the counting efficiencies of individual units. Number size distribution data for particles smaller than 0.9 µm in aerodynamic diameter should only be used with caution. For particles larger than 3 µm, the unit-to-unit variability increased as well. A possible reason is an insufficient sizing accuracy in combination with a steeply sloping particle number size distribution and the increasing uncertainty due to decreasing counting. Particularly this uncertainty of the particle number size distribution must be considered if higher moments of the size distribution such as the particle volume or mass are calculated, which require the conversion of the aerodynamic diameter measured to a volume equivalent diameter. In order to perform a quantitative quality assurance, a traceable reference method for the particle number concentration in the size range 0.5–3 µm is needed.
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    Understanding aerosol microphysical properties from 10 years of data collected at Cabo Verde based on an unsupervised machine learning classification
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Gong, Xianda; Wex, Heike; Müller, Thomas; Henning, Silvia; Voigtländer, Jens; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Stratmann, Frank
    The Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO), which is influenced by both marine and desert dust air masses, has been used for long-term measurements of different properties of the atmospheric aerosol from 2008 to 2017. These properties include particle number size distributions (PNSD), light-absorbing carbon (LAC) and concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) together with their hygroscopicity. Here we summarize the results obtained for these properties and use an unsupervised machine learning algorithm for the classification of aerosol types. Five types of aerosols, i.e., marine, freshly formed, mixture, moderate dust and heavy dust, were classified. Air masses during marine periods are from the Atlantic Ocean and during dust periods are from the Sahara Desert. Heavy dust was more frequently present during wintertime, whereas the clean marine periods were more frequently present during springtime. It was observed that during the dust periods CCN number concentrations at a supersaturation of 0.30g% were roughly 2.5 times higher than during marine periods, but the hygroscopicity (κ) of particles in the size range from g1/4g30 to g1/4g175gnm during marine and dust periods were comparable. The long-term data presented here, together with the aerosol classification, can be used as a basis to improve our understanding of annual cycles of the atmospheric aerosol in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean and on aerosol-cloud interactions and it can be used as a basis for driving, evaluating and constraining atmospheric model simulations.
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    Decreasing trends of particle number and black carbon mass concentrations at 16 observational sites in Germany from 2009 to 2018
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Sun, Jia; Birmili, Wolfram; Hermann, Markus; Tuch, Thomas; Weinhold, Kay; Merkel, Maik; Rasch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Schladitz, Alexander; Bastian, Susanne; Löschau, Gunter; Cyrys, Josef; Gu, Jianwei; Flentje, Harald; Briel, Björn; Asbach, Christoph; Kaminski, Heinz; Ries, Ludwig; Sohmer, Ralf; Gerwig, Holger; Wirtz, Klaus; Meinhardt, Frank; Schwerin, Andreas; Bath, Olaf; Ma, Nan; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Anthropogenic emissions are dominant contributors to air pollution. Consequently, mitigation policies have been attempted since the 1990s in Europe to reduce pollution by anthropogenic emissions. To evaluate the effectiveness of these mitigation policies, the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) was established in 2008, focusing on black carbon (BC) and sub-micrometre aerosol particles. In this study, long-term trends of atmospheric particle number concentrations (PNCs) and equivalent BC (eBC) mass concentration over a 10-year period (2009-2018) were determined for 16 GUAN sites ranging from roadside to high Alpine environments. Overall, statistically significant decreasing trends are found for most of these parameters and environments in Germany. The annual relative slope of eBC mass concentration varies between-13.1% and-1.7% per year. The slopes of the PNCs vary from-17.2% to-1.7 %,-7.8% to-1.1 %, and-11.1% to-1.2% per year for 10-30, 30-200, and 200-800 nm size ranges, respectively. The reductions in various anthropogenic emissions are found to be the dominant factors responsible for the decreasing trends of eBC mass concentration and PNCs. The diurnal and seasonal variations in the trends clearly show the effects of the mitigation policies for road transport and residential emissions. The influences of other factors such as air masses, precipitation, and temperature were also examined and found to be less important or negligible. This study proves that a combination of emission mitigation policies can effectively improve the air quality on large spatial scales. It also suggests that a long-term aerosol measurement network at multi-type sites is an efficient and necessary tool for evaluating emission mitigation policies. © 2020 Author(s).
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    The effect of rapid relative humidity changes on fast filter-based aerosol-particle light-absorption measurements: Uncertainties and correction schemes
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2019) Düsing, Sebastian; Wehner, Birgit; Müller, Thomas; Stöcker, Almond; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Measuring vertical profiles of the particle light-absorption coefficient by using absorption photometers may face the challenge of fast changes in relative humidity (RH). These absorption photometers determine the particle light-absorption coefficient due to a change in light attenuation through a particle-loaded filter. The filter material, however, takes up or releases water with changing relative humidity (RH in %), thus influencing the light attenuation. A sophisticated set of laboratory experiments was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of fast RH changes (dRH/dt) on the particle light-absorption coefficient (σabs in Mm-1) derived with two absorption photometers. The RH dependence was examined based on different filter types and filter loadings with respect to loading material and areal loading density. The Single Channel Tricolor Absorption Photometer (STAP) relies on quartz-fiber filter, and the microAeth® MA200 is based on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter band. Furthermore, three cases were investigated: clean filters, filters loaded with black carbon (BC), and filters loaded with ammonium sulfate. The filter areal loading densities (ρ∗) ranged from 3.1 to 99.6 mg m-2 in the case of the STAP and ammonium sulfate and 1.2 to 37.6 mg m-2 in the case the MA200. Investigating BC-loaded cases, M8 scroll mrow miBCm 15pt was in the range of 2.9 to 43.0 and 1.1 to 16.3 mg m-2 for the STAP and MA200, respectively.

    Both instruments revealed opposing responses to relative humidity changes ("RH) with different magnitudes. The STAP shows a linear dependence on relative humidity changes. The MA200 is characterized by a distinct exponential recovery after its filter was exposed to relative humidity changes. At a wavelength of 624 nm and for the default 60 s running average output, the STAP reveals an absolute change in σabs per absolute change of RH ("σabsĝ•"RH) of 0.14 Mm-1 %-1 in the clean case, 0.29 Mm-1 %-1 in the case of BC-loaded filters, and 0.21 Mm-1 %-1 in the case filters loaded with ammonium sulfate. The 60 s running average of the particle light-absorption coefficient at 625 nm measured with the MA200 revealed a response of around -0.4 Mm-1 %-1 for all three cases. Whereas the response of the STAP varies over the different loading materials, in contrast, the MA200 was quite stable. The response was, for the STAP, in the range of 0.17 to 0.24 Mm-1 %-1 and, in the case of ammonium sulfate loading and in the BC-loaded case, 0.17 to 0.62 Mm-1 %-1. In the ammonium sulfate case, the minimum response shown by the MA200 was -0.42 with a maximum of -0.36 Mm-1 %-1 and a minimum of -0.42 and maximum -0.37 Mm-1 %-1 in the case of BC.

    A linear correction function for the STAP was developed here. It is provided by correlating 1 Hz resolved recalculated particle light-absorption coefficients and RH change rates. The linear response is estimated at 10.08 Mm-1 s-1 %-1. A correction approach for the MA200 is also provided; however, the behavior of the MA200 is more complex. Further research and multi-instrument measurements have to be conducted to fully understand the underlying processes, since the correction approach resulted in different correction parameters across various experiments. However, the exponential recovery after the filter of the MA200 experienced a RH change could be reproduced. However, the given correction approach has to be estimated with other RH sensors as well, since each sensor has a different response time. And, for the given correction approaches, the uncertainties could not be estimated, which was mainly due to the response time of the RH sensor. Therefore, we do not recommend using the given approaches. But they point in the right direction, and despite the imperfections, they are useful for at least estimating the measurement uncertainties due to relative humidity changes.

    Due to our findings, we recommend using an aerosol dryer upstream of absorption photometers to reduce the RH effect significantly. Furthermore, when absorption photometers are used in vertical measurements, the ascending or descending speed through layers of large relative humidity gradients has to be low to minimize the observed RH effect. But this is simply not possible in some scenarios, especially in unmixed layers or clouds. Additionally, recording the RH of the sample stream allows correcting for the bias during post-processing of the data. This data correction leads to reasonable results, according to the given example in this study. © Author(s) 2019.

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    Aerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Ultrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no other studies reported such high number concentration of ultrafine refractory particles under ambient conditions. Inverse modeling of emission factors of refractory particle number size distributions revealed that diesel-fed public utility Jeepneys, commonly used for public transportation, are responsible for 94% of total roadside emitted refractory particle mass. The observed results showed that the majority of urban pollution in Metro Manila is dominated by carbonaceous aerosol. This suggests that PM10 or PM2.5 metrics do not fully describe possible health related effects in this kind of urban environments. Extremely high concentrations of ultrafine particles have been and will continue to induce adverse health related effects, because of their potential toxicity. We imply that in megacities, where the major fraction of particulates originates from the transport sector, PM10 or PM2.5 mass concentration should be complemented by legislative measurements of equivalent black carbon mass concentration.