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Now showing 1 - 10 of 20
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    Blending In Situ Polyurethane-Urea with Different Kinds of Rubber: Performance and Compatibility Aspects
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018-11-02) Tahir, Muhammad; Heinrich, Gert; Mahmood, Nasir; Boldt, Regine; Wießner, Sven; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner
    Specific physical and reactive compatibilization strategies are applied to enhance the interfacial adhesion and mechanical properties of heterogeneous polymer blends. Another pertinent challenge is the need of energy-intensive blending methods to blend high-tech polymers such as the blending of a pre-made hard polyurethane (-urea) with rubbers. We developed and investigated a reactive blending method to prepare the outstanding blends based on polyurethane-urea and rubbers at a low blending temperature and without any interfacial compatibilizing agent. In this study, the polyurethane-urea (PUU) was synthesized via the methylene diphenyl diisocyanate end-capped prepolymer and m-phenylene diamine based precursor route during blending at 100 °C with polar (carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR)) and non-polar (natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (sSBR), and ethylene propylene butadiene rubber (EPDM)) rubbers. We found that the in situ PUU reinforces the tensile response at low strain region and the dynamic-mechanical response up to 150 °C in the case of all used rubbers. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a stronger rubber/PUU interface, which promotes an effective stress transfer between the blend phases. Furthermore, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) based elemental carbon map identifies an interphase region along the interface between the nitrile rubber and in situ PUU phases of this exemplary blend type.
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    The Localization Behavior of Different CNTs in PC/SAN Blends Containing a Reactive Component
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021-3-1) Gültner, Marén; Boldt, Regine; Formanek, Petr; Fischer, Dieter; Simon, Frank; Pötschke, Petra
    Co-continuous blend systems of polycarbonate (PC), poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN), commercial non-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or various types of commercial and laboratory functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and a reactive component (RC, N-phenylmaleimide styrene maleic anhydride copolymer) were melt compounded in one step in a microcompounder. The blend system is immiscible, while the RC is miscible with SAN and contains maleic anhydride groups that have the potential to reactively couple with functional groups on the surface of the nanotubes. The influence of the RC on the localization of MWCNTs and SWCNTs (0.5 wt.%) was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-filtered TEM. In PC/SAN blends without RC, MWCNTs are localized in the PC component. In contrast, in PC/SAN-RC, the MWCNTs localize in the SAN-RC component, depending on the RC concentration. By adjusting the MWCNT/RC ratio, the localization of the MWCNTs can be tuned. The SWCNTs behave differently compared to the MWCNTs in PC/SAN-RC blends and their localization occurs either only in the PC or in both blend components, depending on the type of the SWCNTs. CNT defect concentration and surface functionalities seem to be responsible for the localization differences.
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    Thermoelectric Performance of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube/Ionic Liquid Composites and Its Dependence on Electron Beam Irradiation
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022-1-11) Voigt, Oliver; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Müller, Michael T.; Wießner, Sven
    The thermoelectric behavior of polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposites containing single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and five kinds of ionic liquids (Ils) dependent on composite composition and electron beam irradiation (EB) was studied. Therefore, several samples were melt-mixed in a micro compounder, while five Ils with sufficiently different anions and/or cations were incorporated into the PP/SWCNT composites followed by an EB treatment for selected composites. Extensive investigations were carried out considering the electrical, thermal, mechanical, rheological, morphological and, most significantly, thermoelectric properties. It was found that it is possible to prepare n-type melt-mixed polymer composites from p-type commercial SWCNTs with relatively high Seebeck coefficients when adding four of the selected Ils. The highest Seebeck coefficients achieved in this study were +49.3 µV/K (PP/2 wt.% SWCNT) for p-type composites and −27.6 µV/K (PP/2 wt.% SWCNT/4 wt.% IL type AMIM Cl) for n-type composites. Generally, the type of IL is decisive whether p-or n-type thermoelectric behavior is achieved. After IL addition higher volume conductivity could be reached. Electron beam treatment of PP/SWCNT leads to increased values of the Seebeck coefficient, whereas the EB treated sample with IL (AMIM Cl) shows a less negative Seebeck coefficient value.
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    Effect of Graphite Nanoplate Morphology on the Dispersion and Physical Properties of Polycarbonate Based Composites
    (Basel : MDPI, 2017-5-18) Müller, Michael Thomas; Hilarius, Konrad; Liebscher, Marco; Lellinger, Dirk; Alig, Ingo; Pötschke, Petra
    The influence of the morphology of industrial graphite nanoplate (GNP) materials on their dispersion in polycarbonate (PC) is studied. Three GNP morphology types were identified, namely lamellar, fragmented or compact structure. The dispersion evolution of all GNP types in PC is similar with varying melt temperature, screw speed, or mixing time during melt mixing. Increased shear stress reduces the size of GNP primary structures, whereby the GNP aspect ratio decreases. A significant GNP exfoliation to individual or few graphene layers could not be achieved under the selected melt mixing conditions. The resulting GNP macrodispersion depends on the individual GNP morphology, particle sizes and bulk density and is clearly reflected in the composite's electrical, thermal, mechanical, and gas barrier properties. Based on a comparison with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB), CNT are recommended in regard to electrical conductivity, whereas, for thermal conductive or gas barrier application, GNP is preferred.
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    CuxCo1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.33, 0.67, 1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Based Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposites with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
    (Basel : Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2022-2-26) Anju; Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Pötschke, Petra; Pionteck, Jürgen; Krause, Beate; Kuřitka, Ivo; Vilčáková, Jarmila; Škoda, David; Urbánek, Pavel; Machovský, Michal; Masař, Milan; Urbánek, Michal
    CuxCo1-x Fe2O4 (x = 0.33,0.67,1)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites exhibiting highly efficient electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding were prepared by a melt-mixing approach using a microcompounder. Spinel ferrite Cu0.33Co0.67Fe2O4 (Cu-CoF1), Cu0.67Co0.33Fe2O4 (CuCoF2) and CuFe2O4 (CuF3) nanoparticles were synthesized using the sonochemical method. The CuCoF1 and CuCoF2 exhibited typical ferromagnetic features, whereas CuF3 displayed superparamagnetic characteristics. The maximum value of EMI total shielding effectiveness (SEt) was noticed to be 42.9 dB, 46.2 dB, and 58.8 dB for CuCoF1-rGO-TPU, CuCoF2-rGO-TPU, and CuF3-rGO-TPU nanocomposites, respectively, at a thickness of 1 mm. The highly efficient EMI shielding performance was attributed to the good impedance matching, conductive, dielectric, and magnetic loss. The demonstrated nanocomposites are promising candidates for a lightweight, flexible, and highly efficient EMI shielding material.
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    Polylactic Acid/Carbon Nanoparticle Composite Filaments for Sensing
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021-3-15) Silva, Mariana M.; Lopes, Paulo E.; Li, Yilong; Pötschke, Petra; Ferreira, Fernando N.; Paiva, Maria C.
    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a bio-based, biodegradable polymer that presents high potential for biomedical and sensing applications. Ongoing works reported in the literature concern mainly applications based on 3D printing, while textile applications are hindered by the limited flexibility of PLA and its composite filaments. In the present work, PLA/multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite filaments were produced with enhanced flexibility and electrical conductivity, which may be applied on a textile structure. A biodegradable plasticizer was incorporated in the nanocomposites, aiming at improving MWCNT dispersion and increasing the flexibility of the filaments. Filaments were produced with a range of compositions and their morphology was characterized as well as their thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical properties. Selected compositions were tested for sensing activity using saturated acetone vapor, demonstrating a suitable response and potential for the application in fabrics with sensing capacity.
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    Climate change and international migration: Exploring the macroeconomic channel
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2022) Rikani, Albano; Frieler, Katja; Schewe, Jacob
    International migration patterns, at the global level, can to a large extent be explained through economic factors in origin and destination countries. On the other hand, it has been shown that global climate change is likely to affect economic development over the coming decades. Here, we demonstrate how these future climate impacts on national income levels could alter the global migration landscape. Using an empirically calibrated global migration model, we investigate two separate mechanisms. The first is through destination-country income, which has been shown consistently to have a positive effect on immigration. As countries' income levels relative to each other are projected to change in the future both due to different rates of economic growth and due to different levels of climate change impacts, the relative distribution of immigration across destination countries also changes as a result, all else being equal. Second, emigration rates have been found to have a complex, inverted U-shaped dependence on origin-country income. Given the available migration flow data, it is unclear whether this dependence-found in spatio-temporal panel data-also pertains to changes in a given migration flow over time. If it does, then climate change will additionally affect migration patterns through origin countries' emigration rates, as the relative and absolute positions of countries on the migration "hump" change. We illustrate these different possibilities, and the corresponding effects of 3°C global warming (above pre-industrial) on global migration patterns, using climate model projections and two different methods for estimating climate change effects on macroeconomic development.
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    Temperature Scanning Stress Relaxation of an Autonomous Self-Healing Elastomer Containing Non-Covalent Reversible Network Junctions
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018-01-19) Das, Amit; Sallat, Aladdin; Böhme, Frank; Sarlin, Essi; Vuorinen, Jyrki; Vennemann, Norbert; Heinrich, Gert; Stöckelhuber, Klaus Werner
    In this work, we report about the mechanical relaxation characteristics of an intrinsically self-healable imidazole modified commercial rubber. This kind of self-healing rubber was prepared by melt mixing of 1-butyl imidazole with bromo-butyl rubber (bromine modified isoprene-isobutylene copolymer, BIIR). By this melt mixing process, the reactive allylic bromine of bromo-butyl rubber was converted into imidazole bromide salt. The resulting development of an ionic character to the polymer backbone leads to an ionic association of the groups which ultimately results to the formation of a network structure of the rubber chains. The modified BIIR thus behaves like a robust crosslinked rubber and shows unusual self-healing properties. The non-covalent reversible network has been studied in detail with respect to stress relaxation experiments, scanning electron microscopic and X-ray scattering.
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    Does the Type of Polymer and Carbon Nanotube Structure Control the Electromagnetic Shielding in Melt-Mixed Polymer Nanocomposites?
    (Basel : MDPI, 2020-1-15) Biswas, Sourav; Muzata, Tanyaradzwa S.; Krause, Beate; Rzeczkowski, Piotr; Pötschke, Petra; Bose, Suryasarathi
    A suitable polymer matrix and well dispersed conducting fillers forming an electrically conducting network are the prime requisites for modern age electromagnetic shield designing. An effective polymer-based shield material is designed that can attenuate 99.9% of incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation at a minimum thickness of <0.5 mm. This is accomplished by the choice of a suitable partially crystalline polymer matrix while comparing non-polar polypropylene (PP) with polar polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and a best suited filler nanomaterial by comparing different types of carbon nanotubes such as; branched, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which were added in only 2 wt %. Different types of interactions (polar-polar and CH-π and donor-acceptor) make b-MWCNT more dispersible in the PVDF matrix, which together with high crystallinity resulted in the best electrical conductivity and electromagnetic shielding ability of this composite. This investigation additionally conceals the issues related to the thickness of the shield material just by stacking individual thin nanocomposite layers containing different carbon nanotube (CNT) types with 0.3 mm thickness in a simple manner and finally achieves 99.999% shielding efficiency at just 0.9 mm thickness when using a suitable order of the different PVDF based nanocomposites.
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    Electrically Conductive Polyetheretherketone Nanocomposite Filaments: From Production to Fused Deposition Modeling
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018-8-18) Gonçalves, Jordana; Lima, Patrícia; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Lafont, Ugo; Gomes, José R.; Abreu, Cristiano S.; Paiva, Maria C.; Covas, José A.
    The present work reports the production and characterization of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) nanocomposite filaments incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphite nanoplates (GnP), electrically conductive and suitable for fused deposition modeling (FDM) processing. The nanocomposites were manufactured by melt mixing and those presenting electrical conductivity near 10 S/m were selected for the production of filaments for FDM. The extruded filaments were characterized for mechanical and thermal conductivity, polymer crystallinity, thermal relaxation, nanoparticle dispersion, thermoelectric effect, and coefficient of friction. They presented electrical conductivity in the range of 1.5 to 13.1 S/m, as well as good mechanical performance and higher thermal conductivity compared to PEEK. The addition of GnP improved the composites' melt processability, maintained the electrical conductivity at target level, and reduced the coefficient of friction by up to 60%. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) printed test specimens were produced, showing a Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength comparable to those of the filaments, but a lower strain at break and electrical conductivity. This was attributed to the presence of large voids in the part, revealing the need for 3D printing parameter optimization. Finally, filament production was up-scaled to kilogram scale maintaining the properties of the research-scale filaments.