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Now showing 1 - 10 of 283
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    The spin-flip scattering effect in the spin transport in silicon doped with bismuth
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2017) Ezhevskii, A.A.; Detochenko, A.P.; Soukhorukov, A.V.; Guseinov, D.V.; Kudrin, A.V.; Abrosimov, N.V.; Riemann, H.
    Spin transport of conduction electrons in silicon samples doped with bismuth in the 1.1•1013 - 7.7•1015 cm-3 concentration range was studied by the Hall effect measurements. The dependence of the Hall voltage magnitude on the magnetic field is the sum of the normal and spin Hall effects. The electrons are partially polarized by an external magnetic field and are scattered by the bismuth spin-orbit potential. Spin-flip scattering results in the additional electromotive force which compensates the normal Hall effect in strong magnetic fields.
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    Axial GaAs/Ga(As, Bi) nanowire heterostructures
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Oliva, Miriam; Gao, Guanhui; Luna, Esperanza; Geelhaar, Lutz; Lewis, Ryan B
    Bi-containing III-V semiconductors constitute an exciting class of metastable compounds with wide-ranging potential optoelectronic and electronic applications. However, the growth of III-V-Bi alloys requires group-III-rich growth conditions, which pose severe challenges for planar growth. In this work, we exploit the naturally-Ga-rich environment present inside the metallic droplet of a self-catalyzed GaAs nanowire (NW) to synthesize metastable GaAs/GaAs1-xBi x axial NW heterostructures with high Bi contents. The axial GaAs1-xBi x segments are realized with molecular beam epitaxy by first enriching only the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Ga droplets with Bi, followed by exposing the resulting Ga-Bi droplets to As2 at temperatures ranging from 270 °C to 380 °C to precipitate GaAs1-xBi x only under the NW droplets. Microstructural and elemental characterization reveals the presence of single crystal zincblende GaAs1-xBi x axial NW segments with Bi contents up to (10 ± 2)%. This work illustrates how the unique local growth environment present during the VLS NW growth can be exploited to synthesize heterostructures with metastable compounds. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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    Field-induced interactions in magneto-active elastomers - a comparison of experiments and simulations
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Metsch, P.; Schmidt, H.; Sindersberger, D.; Kalina, K.A.; Brummund, J.; Auernhammer, G.K.; Monkman, G.J.; Kästner, M.
    In this contribution, field-induced interactions of magnetizable particles embedded into a soft elastomer matrix are analyzed with regard to the resulting mechanical deformations. By comparing experiments for two-, three- and four-particle systems with the results of finite element simulations, a fully coupled continuum model for magneto-active elastomers is validated with the help of real data for the first time. The model under consideration permits the investigation of magneto-active elastomers with arbitrary particle distances, shapes and volume fractions as well as magnetic and mechanical properties of the individual constituents. It thus represents a basis for future studies on more complex, realistic systems. Our results show a very good agreement between experiments and numerical simulations—the deformation behavior of all systems is captured by the model qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Within a sensitivity analysis, the influence of the initial particle positions on the systems' response is examined. Furthermore, a comparison of the full three-dimensional model with the often used, simplified two-dimensional approach shows the typical overestimation of resulting interactions in magneto-active elastomers.
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    A multiwavelength study of the Stingray Nebula; properties of the nebula, central star, and dust
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2016) Otsuka, Masaaki; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Tajitsu, Akito; Hubrig, Swetlana
    We performed a detail chemical abundance analysis and photo-ionization modeling of the Stingray Nebula (Hen3-1357, Parthasarathy et al. 1993[1]) to more characterize this PN. We calculated nine elemental abundances using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is supported by the detection of the broad amorphous silicate features at 9 and 18 μm By photo-ionization modeling, we investigated properties of the central star and derived the gas and dust masses. The nebular elemental abundances, the core-mass of the central star, and the gas mass are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.5 M⊙ stars with the Z = 0.008.
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    Stripe-yzmagnetic order in the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet KCeS2
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2021) Kulbakov, Anton A.; Avdoshenko, Stanislav M.; Puente-Orench, Inés; Deeb, Mahmoud; Doerr, Mathias; Schlender, Philipp; Doert, Thomas; Inosov, Dmytro S.
    Yb- and Ce-based delafossites were recently identified as effective spin-1/2 antiferromagnets on the triangular lattice. Several Yb-based systems, such as NaYbO2, NaYbS2, and NaYbSe2, exhibit no long-range order down to the lowest measured temperatures and therefore serve as putative candidates for the realization of a quantum spin liquid. However, their isostructural Ce-based counterpart KCeS2 exhibits magnetic order below TN = 400 mK, which was so far identified only in thermodynamic measurements. Here we reveal the magnetic structure of this long-range ordered phase using magnetic neutron diffraction. We show that it represents the so-called 'stripe-yz' type of antiferromagnetic order with spins lying approximately in the triangular-lattice planes orthogonal to the nearest-neighbor Ce–Ce bonds. No structural lattice distortions are revealed below TN, indicating that the triangular lattice of Ce3+ ions remains geometrically perfect down to the lowest temperatures. We propose an effective Hamiltonian for KCeS2, based on a fit to the results of ab initio calculations, and demonstrate that its magnetic ground state matches the experimental spin structure.
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    Robust changes in tropical rainy season length at 1.5 °C and 2 °C
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2018) Saeed, Fahad; Bethke, Ingo; Fischer, Erich; Legutke, Stephanie; Shiogama, Hideo; Stone, Dáithí A.; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich
    Changes in the hydrological cycle are among the aspects of climate change most relevant for human systems and ecosystems. Besides trends in overall wetting or drying, changes in temporal characteristics of wetting and drying are of crucial importance in determining the climate hazard posed by such changes. This is particularly the case for tropical regions, where most precipitation occurs during the rainy season and changes in rainy season onset and length have substantial consequences. Here we present projections for changes in tropical rainy season lengths for mean temperature increase of 1.5 °C and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Based on multi-ensemble quasi-stationary simulations at these warming levels, our analysis indicates robust changes in rainy season characteristics in large parts of the tropics despite substantial natural variability. Specifically, we report a robust shortening of the rainy season for all of tropical Africa as well as north-east Brazil. About 27% of West Africa is projected to experience robust changes in the rainy season length with a mean shortening of about 7 days under 1.5 °C. We find that changes in the temporal characteristics are largely unrelated to changes in overall precipitation, highlighting the importance of investigating both separately.
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    Ultrafast Structural Changes in Chiral Molecules Measured with Free-Electron Lasers
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2020) Schmidt, P.; Music, V.; Hartmann, G.; Boll, R.; Erk, B.; Bari, S.; Allum, F.; Baumann, T.M.; Brenner, G.; Brouard, M.; Burt, M.; Coffee, R.; Dörner, S.; Galler, A.; Grychtol, P.; Heathcote, D.; Inhester, L.; Kazemi, M.; Larsson, M.; Li, Z.; Lutmann, A.; Manschwetus, B.; Marder, L.; Mason, R.; Moeller, S.; Osipov, T.; Otto, H.; Passow, C.; Rolles, D.; Rupprecht, P.; Schubert, K.; Schwob, L.; Thomas, R.; Vallance, C.; Von Korff Schmising, C.; Wagner, R.; Walter, P.; Wolf, T.J.A.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Meyer, M.; Ehresmann, A.; Knie, A.; Demekhin, P.V.; Ilchen, M.
    (X-ray) free-electron lasers are employed to site specifically interrogate atomic fragments during ultra-fast photolysis of chiral molecules via time-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism. © 2020 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.
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    Temperature and pressure profiles of an ablation-controlled arc plasma in air
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Becerra, Marley; Pettersson, Jonas; Franke, Steffen; Gortschakow, Sergey
    Experimental measurements of the spatial distribution of temperature and composition of ablation-controlled arc plasmas are a key to validate the predictions of metal evaporation and polymer ablation models. Thus, high-speed photography and space-resolved spectroscopic measurements have been performed to characterize a stable air arc plasma jet controlled by ablation of a polymer nozzle made of Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C) or polyamide (PA6). The spectroscopic analysis is performed along a plane perpendicular to the arc jet axis for a current of 1.8 kA, corresponding to an estimated current density of ~65 A mm-2. Temperature and partial pressure profiles of the plasma for copper, hydrogen and carbon in the gas mixture are estimated as an inverse optimization problem by using measured side-on radiance spectra and radiative transfer spectral simulations. It is shown that the generated ablation-controlled arc has a complicated, non-uniform gas composition. Thus, the generated arc jet has a thin metallic core with a lower almost constant hydrogen pressure, surrounded by a thicker hydrogen and carbon mantle at partial pressures slightly lower than atmospheric pressure. The separation of hydrogen and carbon in the core is a consequence of demixing of the polymer vapour in the plasma. It is found that the overall shape of the temperature and pressure profiles obtained for the arc plasmas with the POM-C and PA6 nozzles are similar although differ in peak values and width. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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    Energy system developments and investments in the decisive decade for the Paris Agreement goals
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2021-6-29) Bertram, Christoph; Riahi, Keywan; Hilaire, Jérôme; Bosetti, Valentina; Drouet, Laurent; Fricko, Oliver; Malik, Aman; Pupo Nogueira, Larissa; van der Zwaan, Bob; van Ruijven, Bas; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weitzel, Matthias; Dalla Longa, Francesco; de Boer, Harmen-Sytze; Emmerling, Johannes; Fosse, Florian; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Harmsen, Mathijs; Keramidas, Kimon; Kishimoto, Paul Natsuo; Kriegler, Elmar; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Saygin, Deger; Vrontisi, Zoi; Luderer, Gunnar
    The Paris Agreement does not only stipulate to limit the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, it also calls for 'making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions'. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand the implications of climate targets for energy systems and quantify the associated investment requirements in the coming decade. A meaningful analysis must however consider the near-term mitigation requirements to avoid the overshoot of a temperature goal. It must also include the recently observed fast technological progress in key mitigation options. Here, we use a new and unique scenario ensemble that limit peak warming by construction and that stems from seven up-to-date integrated assessment models. This allows us to study the near-term implications of different limits to peak temperature increase under a consistent and up-to-date set of assumptions. We find that ambitious immediate action allows for limiting median warming outcomes to well below 2 °C in all models. By contrast, current nationally determined contributions for 2030 would add around 0.2 °C of peak warming, leading to an unavoidable transgression of 1.5 °C in all models, and 2 °C in some. In contrast to the incremental changes as foreseen by current plans, ambitious peak warming targets require decisive emission cuts until 2030, with the most substantial contribution to decarbonization coming from the power sector. Therefore, investments into low-carbon power generation need to increase beyond current levels to meet the Paris goals, especially for solar and wind technologies and related system enhancements for electricity transmission, distribution and storage. Estimates on absolute investment levels, up-scaling of other low-carbon power generation technologies and investment shares in less ambitious scenarios vary considerably across models. In scenarios limiting peak warming to below 2 °C, while coal is phased out quickly, oil and gas are still being used significantly until 2030, albeit at lower than current levels. This requires continued investments into existing oil and gas infrastructure, but investments into new fields in such scenarios might not be needed. The results show that credible and effective policy action is essential for ensuring efficient allocation of investments aligned with medium-term climate targets.
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    Atomic processes in bicircular fields
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2016) Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Becker, W.; Milošević, D.B.
    We investigate laser-assisted electron-ion recombination (LAR), high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI) of argon atoms by a bicircular laser field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies rω and sω. The energy of soft x rays generated in the LAR process is analyzed as a function of the incident electron angle and numerical results of direct recombination of electrons with Ar+ ions are presented. We also present the results of HHG by a bicircular field and confirm the selection rules derived earlier for inert-gas atoms in a p ground state. We show that the photoelectron spectra in the ATI process, presented in the momentum plane, as well as the LAR spectra exhibit the same discrete rotational symmetry as the applied field.