Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 24
  • Item
    Magnetic domain wall gratings for magnetization reversal tuning and confined dynamic mode localization
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Trützschler, Julia; Sentosun, Kadir; Mozooni, Babak; Mattheis, Roland; McCord, Jeffrey
    High density magnetic domain wall gratings are imprinted in ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic thin films by local ion irradiation by which alternating head-to-tail-to-head-to-tail and head-to-head-to-tail-to-tail spatially overlapping domain wall networks are formed. Unique magnetic domain processes result from the interaction of anchored domain walls. Non-linear magnetization response is introduced by the laterally distributed magnetic anisotropy phases. The locally varying magnetic charge distribution gives rise to localized and guided magnetization spin-wave modes directly constrained by the narrow domain wall cores. The exchange coupled multiphase material structure leads to unprecedented static and locally modified dynamic magnetic material properties.
  • Item
    Abrupt sand-dune accumulation at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau challenges the wet MIS3a inferred from numerous lake-highstands
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Long, Hao; Fuchs, Markus; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi
    We report on hollow shell-shell nanogels with two polymer shells that have different volume phase transition temperatures. By means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) employing contrast variation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we show that hollow shell-shell nanocontainers are ideal systems for controlled drug delivery: The temperature responsive swelling of the inner shell controls the uptake and release, while the thermoresponsive swelling of the outer shell controls the size of the void and the colloidal stability. At temperatures between 32 °C < T < 42 °C, the hollow nanocontainers provide a significant void, which is even larger than the initial core size of the template and they possess a high colloidal stability due to the steric stabilization of the swollen outer shell. Computer simulations showed, that temperature induced switching of the permeability of the inner shell allows for the encapsulation in and release of molecules from the cavity.
  • Item
    Feature Adaptive Sampling for Scanning Electron Microscopy
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Dahmen, Tim; Engstler, Michael; Pauly, Christoph; Trampert, Patrick; de Jonge, Niels; Mücklich, Frank; Slusallek, Philipp
    A new method for the image acquisition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced. The method used adaptively increased pixel-dwell times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in areas of high detail. In areas of low detail, the electron dose was reduced on a per pixel basis and a-posteriori image processing techniques were applied to remove the resulting noise. The technique was realized by scanning the sample twice. The first, quick scan used small pixel-dwell times to generate a first, noisy image using a low electron dose. This image was analyzed automatically and a software algorithm generated a sparse pattern of regions of the image that require additional sampling. A second scan generated a sparse image of only these regions, but using a highly increased electron dose. By applying a selective low-pass filter and combining both datasets, a single image was generated. The resulting image exhibited a factor of ≈3 better SNR than an image acquired with uniform sampling on a Cartesian grid and the same total acquisition time. This result implies that the required electron dose (or acquisition time) for the adaptive scanning method is a factor of ten lower than for uniform scanning.
  • Item
    Strong-field ionization of clusters using two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Schütte, Bernd; Ye, Peng; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Austin, Dane R.; Brahms, Christian; Strüber, Christian; Witting, Tobias; Ivanov, Misha Yu; Tisch, John W. G.; Marangos, Jon P.
    The interaction of intense laser pulses with nanoscale particles leads to the production of high-energy electrons, ions, neutral atoms, neutrons and photons. Up to now, investigations have focused on near-infrared to X-ray laser pulses consisting of many optical cycles. Here we study strong-field ionization of rare-gas clusters (103 to 105 atoms) using two-cycle 1.8 μm laser pulses to access a new interaction regime in the limit where the electron dynamics are dominated by the laser field and the cluster atoms do not have time to move significantly. The emission of fast electrons with kinetic energies exceeding 3 keV is observed using laser pulses with a wavelength of 1.8 μm and an intensity of 1 × 1015 W/cm2, whereas only electrons below 500 eV are observed at 800 nm using a similar intensity and pulse duration. Fast electrons are preferentially emitted along the laser polarization direction, showing that they are driven out from the cluster by the laser field. In addition to direct electron emission, an electron rescattering plateau is observed. Scaling to even longer wavelengths is expected to result in a highly directional current of energetic electrons on a few-femtosecond timescale.
  • Item
    GigaGauss solenoidal magnetic field inside bubbles excited in under-dense plasma
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Lécz, Z.; Konoplev, I.V.; Seryi, A.; Andreev, A.
    This paper proposes a novel and effective method for generating GigaGauss level, solenoidal quasi-static magnetic fields in under-dense plasma using screw-shaped high intensity laser pulses. This method produces large solenoidal fields that move with the driving laser pulse and are collinear with the accelerated electrons. This is in contrast with already known techniques which rely on interactions with over-dense or solid targets and generates radial or toroidal magnetic field localized at the stationary target. The solenoidal field is quasi-stationary in the reference frame of the laser pulse and can be used for guiding electron beams. It can also provide synchrotron radiation beam emittance cooling for laser-plasma accelerated electron and positron beams, opening up novel opportunities for designs of the light sources, free electron lasers, and high energy colliders based on laser plasma acceleration.
  • Item
    Ocean rogue waves and their phase space dynamics in the limit of a linear interference model
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Birkholz, Simon; Brée, Carsten; Veselić, Ivan; Demircan, Ayhan; Steinmeyer, Günter
    We reanalyse the probability for formation of extreme waves using the simple model of linear interference of a finite number of elementary waves with fixed amplitude and random phase fluctuations. Under these model assumptions no rogue waves appear when less than 10 elementary waves interfere with each other. Above this threshold rogue wave formation becomes increasingly likely, with appearance frequencies that may even exceed long-term observations by an order of magnitude. For estimation of the effective number of interfering waves, we suggest the Grassberger-Procaccia dimensional analysis of individual time series. For the ocean system, it is further shown that the resulting phase space dimension may vary, such that the threshold for rogue wave formation is not always reached. Time series analysis as well as the appearance of particular focusing wind conditions may enable an effective forecast of such rogue-wave prone situations. In particular, extracting the dimension from ocean time series allows much more specific estimation of the rogue wave probability.
  • Item
    Ultrafast in cellulo photoinduced dynamics processes of the paradigm molecular light switch [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) De la Cadena, Alejandro; Davydova, Dar’ya; Tolstik, Tatiana; Reichardt, Christian; Shukla, Sapna; Akimov, Denis; Heintzmann, Rainer; Popp, Jürgen; Dietzek, Benjamin
    An in cellulo study of the ultrafast excited state processes in the paradigm molecular light switch [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ by localized pump-probe spectroscopy is reported for the first time. The localization of [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ in HepG2 cells is verified by emission microscopy and the characteristic photoinduced picosecond dynamics of the molecular light switch is observed in cellulo. The observation of the typical phosphorescence stemming from a 3MLCT state suggests that the [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ complex intercalates with the DNA in the nucleus. The results presented for this benchmark coordination compound reveal the necessity to study the photoinduced processes in coordination compounds for intracellular use, e.g. as sensors or as photodrugs, in the actual biological target environment in order to derive a detailed molecular mechanistic understanding of the excited-state properties of the systems in the actual biological target environment.
  • Item
    Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Silva, R.E.F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.
    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process.
  • Item
    Plastic Deformation Modes of CuZr/Cu Multilayers
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Cui, Yan; Abad, Oscar Torrents; Wang, Fei; Huang, Ping; Lu, Tian-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wei; Wang, Jian
    We synthesized CuZr/Cu multilayers and performed nanoindentation testing to explore the dependence of plastic deformation modes on the thickness of CuZr layers. The Cu layers were 18 nm thick and the CuZr layers varied in thickness from 4 nm to 100 nm. We observed continuous plastic co-deformation in the 4 nm and 10 nm CuZr − 18 nm Cu multilayers and plastic-induced shear instability in thick CuZr layers (>20 nm). The plastic co-deformation is ascribed to the nucleation and interaction of shear transformation zones in CuZr layers at the adjacent interfaces, while the shear instability is associated with the nucleation and propagation of shear bands in CuZr layers. Shear bands are initialized in the CuZr layers due to the accumulated glide dislocations along CuZr-Cu interfaces and propagate into adjacent Cu layers via slips on {111} plane non-parallel to the interface. Due to crystallographic constraint of the Cu layers, shear bands are approximately parallel to {111} plane in the Cu layer.
  • Item
    Spatially resolved spectroscopic differentiation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on individual insulin amyloid fibrils
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Kurouski, Dmitry; Hedegaard, Martin A. B.; Singh, Pushkar; Lednev, Igor K.; Deckert, Volker
    The formation of insoluble β-sheet-rich protein structures known as amyloid fibrils is associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. A detailed understanding of the molecular structure of the fibril surface is of interest as the first contact with the physiological environment in vivo and plays a decisive role in biological activity and associated toxicity. Recent studies reveal that the inherent sensitivity and specificity of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) renders this technique a compelling method for fibril surface analysis at the single-particle level. Here, the reproducibility of TERS is demonstrated, indicating its relevance for detecting molecular variations. Consequently, individual fibrils are systematically investigated at nanometer spatial resolution. Spectral parameters were obtained by band-fitting, particularly focusing on the identification of the secondary structure via the amide III band and the differentiation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains on the surface. In addition multivariate data analysis, specifically the N-FINDR procedure, was employed to generate structure-specific maps. The ability of TERS to localize specific structural domains on fibril surfaces shows promise to the development of new fibril dissection strategies and can be generally applied to any (bio)chemical surface when structural variations at the nanometer level are of interest.