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    Long-term behavior of the concentration of the minor constituents in the mesosphere-a model study
    (Göttingen : Copernicus, 2009) Grygalashvyly, M.; Sonnemann, G.R.; Hartogh, P.
    We investigate the influence the rising concentrations of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide which have occurred since the pre-industrial era, have had on the chemistry of the mesosphere. For this investigation we use our global 3-D-model COMMA-IAP which was designed for the exploration of the MLT-region and in particular the extended mesopause region. Assumptions and approximations for the trends in the Lyman-flux (needed for the water vapor dissociation rate), methane and the water vapor mixing ratio at the hygropause are necessary to accomplish this study. To approximate the solar Lyman-α flux back to the pre-industrial time, we derived a quadratic fit using the sunspot number record which extends back to 1749 and is the only solar proxy available for the Lyman-α flux prior to 1947. We assume that methane increases with a constant growth rate from the pre-industrial era to the present. An unsolved problem for the model calculations consists of how the water vapor mixing ratio at the hygropause should be specified during this period. We assume that the hygropause was dryer during pre-industrial times than the present. As a consequence of methane oxidation, the model simulation indicates that the middle atmosphere has become more humid as a result of the rising methane concentration, but with some dependence on height and with a small time delay of few years. The solar influence on the water vapor mixing ratio is insignificant below about 80 km in summer high latitudes, but becomes increasingly more important above this altitude. The enhanced water vapor concentration increasesthe hydrogen radical concentration and reduces the mesospheric ozone. A second region of stronger ozone decrease is located in the vicinity of the stratopause. Increases in CO2 concentration enhance slightly the concentration of CO in the mesosphere. However, its influence upon the chemistry is small and its main effect is connected with a cooling of the upper atmosphere. The long-term behavior of water vapor is discussed in particular with respect to its impact on the NLC region.
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    Chemical composition of cloud water in the puerto rican tropical trade wind cumuli
    (Dordrecht : Springer, 2009) Gioda, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Morales-García, F.; Collett, J.; Decesari, S.; Emblico, L.; Facchini, M.C.; Morales-De Jesús, R.J.; Mertes, S.; Borrmann, S.; Walter, S.; Schneider, J.
    As part of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean Experiment (RICO) and the Puerto Rico Aerosol and Cloud Study (PRACS), cloud water was collected at East Peak (EP) in Puerto Rico. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of water-soluble species (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, NH4 +, Ca 2+, H+, Mg2+, K+, and Na +) in water samples taken from clouds influenced by tropical trade winds. The most abundant inorganic species were Na+ (average 465 μeq l-1) and Cl- (434 μeq l-1), followed by Mg2+ (105 μeq l-1), SO4 2- (61 μeq l-1), and NO3 - (25 μeq l -1). High concentrations of nss-SO4 2 (28 μeq l-1), NO3 - (86 μeq l-1), and H+ (14.5 μeq l-1) were measured with a shift in air masses origin from the North Atlantic to North American continent, which reflected a strong anthropogenic influence on cloud chemistry at EP. Long-range transport of particles and acid gases seems to be the factor responsible for fluctuations in concentrations and pH of cloud water at East Peak. When under trade wind influences the liquid phase concentrations of all inorganic substances were similar to those found in clouds in other clean maritime environments. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.