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    Depolarization and lidar ratios at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and microphysical properties of aged tropospheric and stratospheric Canadian wildfire smoke
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Haarig, M.; Ansmann, A.; Baars, H.; Jimenez, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Engelmann, R.; Althausen, D.
    We present spectrally resolved optical and microphysical properties of western Canadian wildfire smoke observed in a tropospheric layer from 5-6.5 km height and in a stratospheric layer from 15-16 km height during a recordbreaking smoke event on 22 August 2017. Three polarization/ Raman lidars were run at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) station of Leipzig, Germany, after sunset on 22 August. For the first time, the linear depolarization ratio and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) of aged smoke particles were measured at all three important lidar wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Very different particle depolarization ratios were found in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. The obviously compact and spherical tropospheric smoke particles caused almost no depolarization of backscattered laser radiation at all three wavelengths ( < 3 %), whereas the dry irregularly shaped soot particles in the stratosphere lead to high depolarization ratios of 22% at 355 nm and 18% at 532 nm and a comparably low value of 4% at 1064 nm. The lidar ratios were 40- 45 sr (355 nm), 65-80 sr (532 nm), and 80-95 sr (1064 nm) in both the tropospheric and stratospheric smoke layers indicating similar scattering and absorption properties. The strong wavelength dependence of the stratospheric depolarization ratio was probably caused by the absence of a particle coarse mode (particle mode consisting of particles with radius > 500nm). The stratospheric smoke particles formed a pronounced accumulation mode (in terms of particle volume or mass) centered at a particle radius of 350-400 nm. The effective particle radius was 0.32 μm. The tropospheric smoke particles were much smaller (effective radius of 0.17 μm). Mass concentrations were of the order of 5.5 μgm-3 (tropospheric layer) and 40 μgm-3 (stratospheric layer) in the night of 22 August 2017. The single scattering albedo of the stratospheric particles was estimated to be 0.74, 0.8, and 0.83 at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively.
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    Annual variability of ice-nucleating particle concentrations at different Arctic locations
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Wex, H.; Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Hung, H.; Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Sheesley, R.J.; Moffett, C.E.; Barrett, T.E.; Bossi, R.; Skov, H.; Hünerbein, A.; Lubitz, J.; Löffler, M.; Linke, O.; Hartmann, M.; Herenz, P.; Stratmann, F.
    Number concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (NINP) in the Arctic were derived from ground-based filter samples. Examined samples had been collected in Alert (Nunavut, northern Canadian archipelago on Ellesmere Island), Utqiagvik, formerly known as Barrow (Alaska), Nyalesund (Svalbard), and at the Villum Research Station (VRS; northern Greenland). For the former two stations, examined filters span a full yearly cycle. For VRS, 10 weekly samples, mostly from different months of one year, were included. Samples from Ny-Alesund were collected during the months from March until September of one year. At all four stations, highest concentrations were found in the summer months from roughly June to September. For those stations with sufficient data coverage, an annual cycle can be seen. The spectra of NINP observed at the highest temperatures, i.e., those obtained for summer months, showed the presence of INPs that nucleate ice up to-5 °C. Although the nature of these highly ice-active INPs could not be determined in this study, it often has been described in the literature that ice activity observed at such high temperatures originates from the presence of ice-active material of biogenic origin. Spectra observed at the lowest temperatures, i.e., those derived for winter months, were on the lower end of the respective values from the literature on Arctic INPs or INPs from midlatitude continental sites, to which a comparison is presented herein. An analysis concerning the origin of INPs that were ice active at high temperatures was carried out using back trajectories and satellite information. Both terrestrial locations in the Arctic and the adjacent sea were found to be possible source areas for highly active INPs.