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    Kinetic measurements of the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide and ozone towards small atmospherically relevant aldehydes, ketones and organic acids in aqueous solutions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Schöne, L.; Herrmann, H.
    Free radical reactions are an important degradation process for organic compounds within the aqueous atmospheric environment. Nevertheless, non-radical oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone also contribute to the degradation and conversion of these substances (Tilgner and Herrmann, 2010). In this work, kinetic investigations of non-radical reactions were conducted using UV / Vis spectroscopy (dual-beam spectrophotometer and stopped flow technique) and a capillary electrophoresis system applying pseudo-first order kinetics to reactions of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, glycolaldehyde, glyoxylic, pyruvic and glycolic acid as well as methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) with H2O2 and ozone at 298 K. The measurements indicate rather small rate constants at room temperature of k2nd < 3 M−1 s−1 (except for the unsaturated compounds exposed to ozone). Compared to radical reaction rate constants the values are about 10 orders of magnitude smaller (kOH• ~109 M−1 s−1). However, when considering the much larger non-radical oxidant concentrations compared to radical concentrations in urban cloud droplets, calculated first-order conversion rate constants change the picture towards H2O2 reactions becoming more important, especially when compared to the nitrate radical. For some reactions mechanistic suggestions are also given.
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    The influence of clouds on radical concentrations: Observations and modelling studies of HOx during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT) campaign in 2010
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Whalley, L.K.; Stone, D.; George, I.J.; Mertes, S.; van Pinxteren, D.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Evans, M.J.; Heard, D.E.
    The potential for chemistry occurring in cloud droplets to impact atmospheric composition has been known for some time. However, the lack of direct observations and uncertainty in the magnitude of these reactions led to this area being overlooked in most chemistry transport models. Here we present observations from Mt Schmücke, Germany, of the HO2 radical made alongside a suite of cloud measurements. HO2 concentrations were depleted in-cloud by up to 90% with the rate of heterogeneous loss of HO2 to clouds necessary to bring model and measurements into agreement, demonstrating a dependence on droplet surface area and pH. This provides the first observationally derived assessment for the uptake coefficient of HO2 to cloud droplets and was found to be in good agreement with theoretically derived parameterisations. Global model simulations, including this cloud uptake, showed impacts on the oxidising capacity of the troposphere that depended critically on whether the HO2 uptake leads to production of H2O2 or H2O.
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    Trace metal characterization of aerosol particles and cloud water during HCCT 2010
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Fomba, K.W.; van Pinxteren, D.; Müller, K.; Iinuma, Y.; Lee, T.; Collett Jr., J.L.; Herrmann, H.
    Trace metal characterization of bulk and size-resolved aerosol and cloud water samples were performed during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia (HCCT) campaign. Cloud water was collected at the top of Mt. Schmücke while aerosol samples were collected at two stations upwind and downwind of Mt. Schmücke. Fourteen trace metals including Ti, V, Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Pb, Cr, and Se were investigated during four full cloud events (FCEs) that fulfilled the conditions of a continuous air mass flow through the three stations. Aerosol particle trace metal concentrations were found to be lower than those observed in the same region during previous field experiments but were within a similar range to those observed in other rural regions in Europe. Fe and Zn were the most abundant elements with concentration ranges of 0.2–111.6 and 1.1–32.1 ng m−3, respectively. Fe, Mn, and Ti were mainly found in coarse mode aerosols while Zn, Pb, and As were mostly found in the fine mode. Correlation and enrichment factor analysis of trace metals revealed that trace metals such as Ti and Rb were mostly of crustal origin while trace metals such as Zn, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, V, and Cu were of anthropogenic origin. Trace metals such as Fe and Mn were of mixed origins including crustal and combustion sources. Trace metal cloud water concentration decreased from Ti, Mn, Cr, to Co with average concentrations of 9.18, 5.59, 5.54, and 0.46 μg L−1, respectively. A non-uniform distribution of soluble Fe, Cu, and Mn was observed across the cloud drop sizes. Soluble Fe and Cu were found mainly in cloud droplets with diameters between 16 and 22 μm, while Mn was found mostly in larger drops greater than 22 μm. Fe(III) was the main form of soluble Fe especially in the small and larger drops with concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 37.1 μg L−1. In contrast to other studies, Fe(II) was observed mainly in the evening hours, implying its presence was not directly related to photochemical processes. Aerosol–cloud interaction did not lead to a marked increase in soluble trace metal concentrations; rather it led to differences in the chemical composition of the aerosol due to preferential loss of aerosol particles through physical processes including cloud drop deposition to vegetative surfaces.