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    The vertical aerosol type distribution above Israel – 2 years of lidar observations at the coastal city of Haifa
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Heese, Birgit; Floutsi, Athena Augusta; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Herzog, Alina; Mewes, Silke; Radenz, Martin; Schechner, Yoav Y.
    For the first time, vertically resolved long-term lidar measurements of the aerosol distribution were conducted in Haifa, Israel. The measurements were performed by a PollyXT multi-wavelength Raman and polarization lidar. The lidar was measuring continuously over a 2-year period from March 2017 to May 2019. The resulting data set is a series of manually evaluated lidar optical property profiles. To identify the aerosol types in the observed layers, a novel aerosol typing method that was developed at TROPOS is used. This method applies optimal estimation to a combination of lidar-derived intensive aerosol properties to determine the statistically most-likely contribution per aerosol component in terms of relative volume. A case study that shows several elevated aerosol layers illustrates this method and shows, for example, that coarse dust particles are observed up to 5ĝ€¯km height over Israel. From the whole data set, the seasonal distribution of the observed aerosol components over Israel is derived. Throughout all seasons, coarse spherical particles like sea salt and hygroscopically grown continental aerosol were observed. These particles originate from continental Europe and were transported over the Mediterranean Sea. Sea-salt particles were observed frequently due to the coastal site of Haifa. The highest contributions of coarse spherical particles are present in summer, autumn, and winter. During spring, mostly coarse non-spherical particles that are attributed to desert dust were observed. This is consistent with the distinct dust season in spring in Israel. An automated time-height-resolved air mass source attribution method identifies the origin of the dust in the Sahara and the Arabian deserts. Fine-mode spherical particles contribute significantly to the observed aerosol mixture during all seasons. These particles originate mainly from the industrial region at the bay of Haifa.
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    Extreme levels of Canadian wildfire smoke in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2018) Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Mattis, Ina; Veselovskii, Igor; Haarig, Moritz; Seifert, Patric; Engelmann, Ronny; Wandinger, Ulla
    Light extinction coefficients of 500 Mm1, about 20 times higher than after the Pinatubo volcanic eruptions in 1991, were observed by European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars in the stratosphere over central Europe on 21-22 August 2017. Pronounced smoke layers with a 1-2 km vertical extent were found 2-5 km above the local tropopause. Optically dense layers of Canadian wildfire smoke reached central Europe 10 days after their injection into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which was caused by rather strong pyrocumulonimbus activity over western Canada. The smoke-related aerosol optical thickness (AOT) identified by lidar was close to 1.0 at 532 nm over Leipzig during the noon hours on 22 August 2017. Smoke particles were found throughout the free troposphere (AOT of 0.3) and in the pronounced 2 km thick stratospheric smoke layer at an altitude of 14-16 km (AOT of 0.6). The lidar observations indicated peak mass concentrations of 70-100 μgm-3 in the stratosphere. In addition to the lidar profiles, we analyzed Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power (FRP) over Canada, and the distribution of MODIS AOT and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index across the North Atlantic. These instruments showed a similar pattern and a clear link between the western Canadian fires and the aerosol load over Europe. In this paper, we also present Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun photometer observations, compare photometer and lidar-derived AOT, and discuss an obvious bias (the smoke AOT is too low) in the photometer observations. Finally, we compare the strength of this recordbreaking smoke event (in terms of the particle extinction coefficient and AOT) with major and moderate volcanic events observed over the northern midlatitudes.
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    Significant continental source of ice-nucleating particles at the tip of Chile's southernmost Patagonia region
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2022) Gong, Xianda; Radenz, Martin; Wex, Heike; Seifert, Patric; Ataei, Farnoush; Henning, Silvia; Baars, Holger; Barja, Boris; Ansmann, Albert; Stratmann, Frank
    The sources and abundance of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) that initiate cloud ice formation remain understudied, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we present INP measurements taken close to Punta Arenas, Chile, at the southernmost tip of South America from May 2019 to March 2020, during the Dynamics, Aerosol, Cloud, And Precipitation Observations in the Pristine Environment of the Southern Ocean (DACAPO-PESO) campaign. The highest ice nucleation temperature was observed at −3◦C, and from this temperature down to ∼ −10◦C, a sharp increase of INP number concentration (NINP) was observed. Heating of the samples revealed that roughly 90 % and 80 % of INPs are proteinaceous-based biogenic particles at > −10 and −15◦C, respectively. The NINP at Punta Arenas is much higher than that in the Southern Ocean, but it is comparable with an agricultural area in Argentina and forestry environment in the US. Ice active surface site density (ns) is much higher than that for marine aerosol in the Southern Ocean, but comparable to English fertile soil dust. Parameterization based on particle number concentration in the size range larger than 500 nm (N>500 nm) from the global average (DeMott et al., 2010) overestimates the measured INP, but the parameterization representing biological particles from a forestry environment (Tobo et al., 2013) yields NINP comparable to this study. No clear seasonal variation of NINP was observed. High precipitation is one of the most important meteorological parameters to enhance the NINP in both cold and warm seasons. A comparison of data from in situ and lidar measurements showed good agreement for concentrations of large aerosol particles (> 500 nm) when assuming continental conditions for retrieval of the lidar data, suggesting that these particles were well mixed within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). This corroborates the continental origin of these particles, consistent with the results from our INP source analysis. Overall, we suggest that a high NINP of biogenic INPs originated from terrestrial sources and were added to the marine air masses during the overflow of a maximum of roughly 150 km of land before arriving at the measurement station.