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    The Importance of the Representation of DMS Oxidation in Global Chemistry‐Climate Simulations
    (Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2021) Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Heinold, Bernd; Kubin, Anne; Tegen, Ina; Herrmann, Hartmut
    The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is key for the natural sulfate aerosol formation and its climate impact. Multiphase chemistry is an important oxidation pathway but neglected in current chemistry-climate models. Here, the DMS chemistry in the aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ is extended to include multiphase methane sulfonic acid (MSA) formation in deliquesced aerosol particles, parameterized by reactive uptake. First simulations agree well with observed gas-phase MSA concentrations. The implemented formation pathways are quantified to contribute up to 60% to the sulfate aerosol burden over the Southern Ocean and Arctic/Antarctic regions. While globally the impact on the aerosol radiative forcing almost levels off, a significantly more positive solar radiative forcing of up to +0.1 W m−2 is computed in the Arctic (>60°N). The findings imply the need of both further laboratory and model studies on the atmospheric multiphase oxidation of DMS.
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    Modelling mineral dust emissions and atmospheric dispersion with MADE3 in EMAC v2.54
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2020) Beer, Christof G.; Hendricks, Johannes; Righi, Mattia; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina; Groß, Silke; Sauer, Daniel; Walser, Adrian; Weinzierl, Bernadett
    It was hypothesized that using mineral dust emission climatologies in global chemistry climate models (GCCMs), i.e. prescribed monthly-mean dust emissions representative of a specific year, may lead to misrepresentations of strong dust burst events. This could result in a negative bias of model dust concentrations compared to observations for these episodes. Here, we apply the aerosol microphysics submodel MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, third generation) as part of the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model. We employ two different representations of mineral dust emissions for our model simulations: (i) a prescribed monthly-mean climatology of dust emissions representative of the year 2000 and (ii) an online dust parametrization which calculates wind-driven mineral dust emissions at every model time step. We evaluate model results for these two dust representations by comparison with observations of aerosol optical depth from ground-based station data. The model results show a better agreement with the observations for strong dust burst events when using the online dust representation compared to the prescribed dust emissions setup. Furthermore, we analyse the effect of increasing the vertical and horizontal model resolution on the mineral dust properties in our model. We compare results from simulations with T42L31 and T63L31 model resolution (2.8∘×2.8∘ and 1.9∘×1.9∘ in latitude and longitude, respectively; 31 vertical levels) with the reference setup (T42L19). The different model versions are evaluated against airborne in situ measurements performed during the SALTRACE mineral dust campaign (Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Experiment, June–July 2013), i.e. observations of dust transported from the Sahara to the Caribbean. Results show that an increased horizontal and vertical model resolution is able to better represent the spatial distribution of airborne mineral dust, especially in the upper troposphere (above 400 hPa). Additionally, we analyse the effect of varying assumptions for the size distribution of emitted dust but find only a weak sensitivity concerning these changes. The results of this study will help to identify the model setup best suited for future studies and to further improve the representation of mineral dust particles in EMAC-MADE3.
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    The global aerosol-climate model echam6.3-ham2.3 -Part 1: Aerosol evaluation
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Tegen, I.; Neubauer, D.; Ferrachat, S.; Drian, C.S.-L.; Bey, I.; Schutgens, N.; Stier, P.; Watson-Parris, D.; Stanelle, T.; Schmidt, H.; Rast, S.; Kokkola, H.; Schultz, M.; Schroeder, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Barthel, S.; Heinold, B.; Lohmann, U.
    We introduce and evaluate aerosol simulations with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3, which is the aerosol component of the fully coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. Both the host atmospheric climate model ECHAM6.3 and the aerosol model HAM2.3 were updated from previous versions. The updated version of the HAM aerosol model contains improved parameterizations of aerosol processes such as cloud activation, as well as updated emission fields for anthropogenic aerosol species and modifications in the online computation of sea salt and mineral dust aerosol emissions. Aerosol results from nudged and free-running simulations for the 10-year period 2003 to 2012 are compared to various measurements of aerosol properties. While there are regional deviations between the model and observations, the model performs well overall in terms of aerosol optical thickness, but may underestimate coarse-mode aerosol concentrations to some extent so that the modeled particles are smaller than indicated by the observations. Sulfate aerosol measurements in the US and Europe are reproduced well by the model, while carbonaceous aerosol species are biased low. Both mineral dust and sea salt aerosol concentrations are improved compared to previous versions of ECHAM-HAM. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol distributions serves as a basis for the suitability of the model for simulating aerosol-climate interactions in a changing climate.
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    Chemical composition of cloud water in the puerto rican tropical trade wind cumuli
    (Dordrecht : Springer, 2009) Gioda, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Morales-García, F.; Collett, J.; Decesari, S.; Emblico, L.; Facchini, M.C.; Morales-De Jesús, R.J.; Mertes, S.; Borrmann, S.; Walter, S.; Schneider, J.
    As part of the Rain In Cumulus over the Ocean Experiment (RICO) and the Puerto Rico Aerosol and Cloud Study (PRACS), cloud water was collected at East Peak (EP) in Puerto Rico. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of water-soluble species (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, NH4 +, Ca 2+, H+, Mg2+, K+, and Na +) in water samples taken from clouds influenced by tropical trade winds. The most abundant inorganic species were Na+ (average 465 μeq l-1) and Cl- (434 μeq l-1), followed by Mg2+ (105 μeq l-1), SO4 2- (61 μeq l-1), and NO3 - (25 μeq l -1). High concentrations of nss-SO4 2 (28 μeq l-1), NO3 - (86 μeq l-1), and H+ (14.5 μeq l-1) were measured with a shift in air masses origin from the North Atlantic to North American continent, which reflected a strong anthropogenic influence on cloud chemistry at EP. Long-range transport of particles and acid gases seems to be the factor responsible for fluctuations in concentrations and pH of cloud water at East Peak. When under trade wind influences the liquid phase concentrations of all inorganic substances were similar to those found in clouds in other clean maritime environments. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.