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    Development of an online-coupled MARGA upgrade for the 2 h interval quantification of low-molecular-weight organic acids in the gas and particle phases
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Stieger, B.; Spindler, G.; Van Pinxteren, D.; Grüner, A.; Wallasch, M.; Herrmann, H.
    A method is presented to quantify the lowmolecular- weight organic acids such as formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, pyruvic, glycolic, oxalic, malonic, succinic, malic, glutaric, and methanesulfonic acid in the atmospheric gas and particle phases, based on a combination of the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air (MARGA) and an additional ion chromatography (Compact IC) instrument. Therefore, every second hourly integrated MARGA gas and particle samples were collected and analyzed by the Compact IC, resulting in 12 values per day for each phase. A proper separation of the organic target acids was initially tackled by a laboratory IC optimization study, testing different separation columns, eluent compositions and eluent flow rates for both isocratic and gradient elution. Satisfactory resolution of all compounds was achieved using a gradient system with two coupled anion-exchange separation columns. Online pre-concentration with an enrichment factor of approximately 400 was achieved by solid-phase extraction consisting of a methacrylate-polymer-based sorbent with quaternary ammonium groups. The limits of detection of the method range between 0.5 ngm3 for malonate and 17.4 ngm3 for glutarate. Precisions are below 1.0 %, except for glycolate (2.9 %) and succinate (1.0 %). Comparisons of inorganic anions measured at the TROPOS research site in Melpitz, Germany, by the original MARGA and the additional Compact IC are in agreement with each other (R2 D0.95-0.99). Organic acid concentrations from May 2017 as an example period are presented. Monocarboxylic acids were dominant in the gas phase with mean concentrations of 306 ngm3 for acetic acid, followed by formic (199 ngm3), propionic (83 ngm3), pyruvic (76 ngm3), butyric (34 ngm3) and glycolic acid (32 ngm3). Particulate glycolate, oxalate and methanesulfonate were quantified with mean concentrations of 26, 31 and 30 ngm3, respectively. Elevated concentrations of gas-phase formic acid and particulate oxalate in the late afternoon indicate photochemical formation as a source.
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    Depolarization and lidar ratios at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and microphysical properties of aged tropospheric and stratospheric Canadian wildfire smoke
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2018) Haarig, M.; Ansmann, A.; Baars, H.; Jimenez, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Engelmann, R.; Althausen, D.
    We present spectrally resolved optical and microphysical properties of western Canadian wildfire smoke observed in a tropospheric layer from 5-6.5 km height and in a stratospheric layer from 15-16 km height during a recordbreaking smoke event on 22 August 2017. Three polarization/ Raman lidars were run at the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET) station of Leipzig, Germany, after sunset on 22 August. For the first time, the linear depolarization ratio and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) of aged smoke particles were measured at all three important lidar wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Very different particle depolarization ratios were found in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. The obviously compact and spherical tropospheric smoke particles caused almost no depolarization of backscattered laser radiation at all three wavelengths ( < 3 %), whereas the dry irregularly shaped soot particles in the stratosphere lead to high depolarization ratios of 22% at 355 nm and 18% at 532 nm and a comparably low value of 4% at 1064 nm. The lidar ratios were 40- 45 sr (355 nm), 65-80 sr (532 nm), and 80-95 sr (1064 nm) in both the tropospheric and stratospheric smoke layers indicating similar scattering and absorption properties. The strong wavelength dependence of the stratospheric depolarization ratio was probably caused by the absence of a particle coarse mode (particle mode consisting of particles with radius > 500nm). The stratospheric smoke particles formed a pronounced accumulation mode (in terms of particle volume or mass) centered at a particle radius of 350-400 nm. The effective particle radius was 0.32 μm. The tropospheric smoke particles were much smaller (effective radius of 0.17 μm). Mass concentrations were of the order of 5.5 μgm-3 (tropospheric layer) and 40 μgm-3 (stratospheric layer) in the night of 22 August 2017. The single scattering albedo of the stratospheric particles was estimated to be 0.74, 0.8, and 0.83 at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, respectively.
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    Annual variability of ice-nucleating particle concentrations at different Arctic locations
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Wex, H.; Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Hung, H.; Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Sheesley, R.J.; Moffett, C.E.; Barrett, T.E.; Bossi, R.; Skov, H.; Hünerbein, A.; Lubitz, J.; Löffler, M.; Linke, O.; Hartmann, M.; Herenz, P.; Stratmann, F.
    Number concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (NINP) in the Arctic were derived from ground-based filter samples. Examined samples had been collected in Alert (Nunavut, northern Canadian archipelago on Ellesmere Island), Utqiagvik, formerly known as Barrow (Alaska), Nyalesund (Svalbard), and at the Villum Research Station (VRS; northern Greenland). For the former two stations, examined filters span a full yearly cycle. For VRS, 10 weekly samples, mostly from different months of one year, were included. Samples from Ny-Alesund were collected during the months from March until September of one year. At all four stations, highest concentrations were found in the summer months from roughly June to September. For those stations with sufficient data coverage, an annual cycle can be seen. The spectra of NINP observed at the highest temperatures, i.e., those obtained for summer months, showed the presence of INPs that nucleate ice up to-5 °C. Although the nature of these highly ice-active INPs could not be determined in this study, it often has been described in the literature that ice activity observed at such high temperatures originates from the presence of ice-active material of biogenic origin. Spectra observed at the lowest temperatures, i.e., those derived for winter months, were on the lower end of the respective values from the literature on Arctic INPs or INPs from midlatitude continental sites, to which a comparison is presented herein. An analysis concerning the origin of INPs that were ice active at high temperatures was carried out using back trajectories and satellite information. Both terrestrial locations in the Arctic and the adjacent sea were found to be possible source areas for highly active INPs.
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    The global aerosol-climate model echam6.3-ham2.3 -Part 1: Aerosol evaluation
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Tegen, I.; Neubauer, D.; Ferrachat, S.; Drian, C.S.-L.; Bey, I.; Schutgens, N.; Stier, P.; Watson-Parris, D.; Stanelle, T.; Schmidt, H.; Rast, S.; Kokkola, H.; Schultz, M.; Schroeder, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Barthel, S.; Heinold, B.; Lohmann, U.
    We introduce and evaluate aerosol simulations with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3, which is the aerosol component of the fully coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. Both the host atmospheric climate model ECHAM6.3 and the aerosol model HAM2.3 were updated from previous versions. The updated version of the HAM aerosol model contains improved parameterizations of aerosol processes such as cloud activation, as well as updated emission fields for anthropogenic aerosol species and modifications in the online computation of sea salt and mineral dust aerosol emissions. Aerosol results from nudged and free-running simulations for the 10-year period 2003 to 2012 are compared to various measurements of aerosol properties. While there are regional deviations between the model and observations, the model performs well overall in terms of aerosol optical thickness, but may underestimate coarse-mode aerosol concentrations to some extent so that the modeled particles are smaller than indicated by the observations. Sulfate aerosol measurements in the US and Europe are reproduced well by the model, while carbonaceous aerosol species are biased low. Both mineral dust and sea salt aerosol concentrations are improved compared to previous versions of ECHAM-HAM. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol distributions serves as a basis for the suitability of the model for simulating aerosol-climate interactions in a changing climate.