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    Long-range and local air pollution: What can we learn from chemical speciation of particulate matter at paired sites?
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Pandolfi, Marco; Mooibroek, Dennis; Hopke, Philip; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Querol, Xavier; Herrmann, Hartmut; Alastuey, Andrés; Favez, Olivier; Hüglin, Christoph; Perdrix, Esperanza; Riffault, Véronique; Sauvage, Stéphane; van der Swaluw, Eric; Tarasova, Oksana; Colette, Augustin
    Here we report results of a detailed analysis of the urban and non-urban contributions to particulate matter (PM) concentrations and source contributions in five European cities, namely Schiedam (the Netherlands, NL), Lens (France, FR), Leipzig (Germany, DE), Zurich (Switzerland, CH) and Barcelona (Spain, ES). PM chemically speciated data from 12 European paired monitoring sites (one traffic, five urban, five regional and one continental background) were analysed by positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and Lenschow's approach to assign measured PM and source contributions to the different spatial levels. Five common sources were obtained at the 12 sites: sulfate-rich (SSA) and nitrate-rich (NSA) aerosols, road traffic (RT), mineral matter (MM), and aged sea salt (SS). These sources explained from 55 % to 88 % of PM mass at urban low-traffic-impact sites (UB) depending on the country. Three additional common sources were identified at a subset of sites/countries, namely biomass burning (BB) (FR, CH and DE), explaining an additional 9 %-13 % of PM mass, and residual oil combustion (V-Ni) and primary industrial (IND) (NL and ES), together explaining an additional 11 %-15 % of PM mass. In all countries, the majority of PM measured at UB sites was of a regional+continental (R+C) nature (64 %-74 %). The R+C PM increments due to anthropogenic emissions in DE, NL, CH, ES and FR represented around 66 %, 62 %, 52 %, 32 % and 23 %, respectively, of UB PM mass. Overall, the R+C PM increments due to natural and anthropogenic sources showed opposite seasonal profiles with the former increasing in summer and the latter increasing in winter, even if exceptions were observed. In ES, the anthropogenic R+C PM increment was higher in summer due to high contributions from regional SSA and V-Ni sources, both being mostly related to maritime shipping emissions at the Spanish sites. Conversely, in the other countries, higher anthropogenic R+C PM increments in winter were mostly due to high contributions from NSA and BB regional sources during the cold season. On annual average, the sources showing higher R+C increments were SSA (77 %-91 % of SSA source contribution at the urban level), NSA (51 %-94 %), MM (58 %-80 %), BB (42 %-78 %) and IND (91 % in NL). Other sources showing high R+C increments were photochemistry and coal combustion (97 %-99 %; identified only in DE). The highest regional SSA increment was observed in ES, especially in summer, and was related to ship emissions, enhanced photochemistry and peculiar meteorological patterns of the Western Mediterranean. The highest R+C and urban NSA increments were observed in NL and associated with high availability of precursors such as NOx and NH3. Conversely, on average, the sources showing higher local increments were RT (62 %-90 % at all sites) and V-Ni (65 %-80 % in ES and NL). The relationship between SSA and V-Ni indicated that the contribution of ship emissions to the local sulfate concentrations in NL has strongly decreased since 2007 thanks to the shift from high-sulfur-to low-sulfur-content fuel used by ships. An improvement of air quality in the five cities included here could be achieved by further reducing local (urban) emissions of PM, NOx and NH3 (from both traffic and non-traffic sources) but also SO2 and PM (from maritime ships and ports) and giving high relevance to non-urban contributions by further reducing emissions of SO2 (maritime shipping) and NH3 (agriculture) and those from industry, regional BB sources and coal combustion. © 2020 Copernicus GmbH. All rights reserved.
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    Multi-generation OH oxidation as a source for highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromatics
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Garmash, Olga; Rissanen, Matti P.; Pullinen, Iida; Schmit, Sebastian; Kausiala, Oskari; Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Percival, Carl; Bannan, Thomas J.; Priestley, Michael; Hallquist, Åsa M.; Kleist, Einhard; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Hallquist, Mattias; Berndt, Torsten; McFiggans, Gordon; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F.; Ehn, Mikael
    Recent studies have recognised highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) in the atmosphere as important in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A large number of studies have focused on HOM formation from oxidation of biogenically emitted monoterpenes. However, HOM formation from anthropogenic vapours has so far received much less attention. Previous studies have identified the importance of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for SOA formation. In this study, we investigated several aromatic compounds, benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and naphthalene (C10H8), for their potential to form HOMs upon reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). We performed flow tube experiments with all three VOCs and focused in detail on benzene HOM formation in the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber (JPAC). In JPAC, we also investigated the response of HOMs to NOx and seed aerosol. Using a nitrate-based chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CI-APi-TOF), we observed the formation of HOMs in the flow reactor oxidation of benzene from the first OH attack. However, in the oxidation of toluene and naphthalene, which were injected at lower concentrations, multigeneration OH oxidation seemed to impact the HOM composition. We tested this in more detail for the benzene system in the JPAC, which allowed for studying longer residence times. The results showed that the apparent molar benzene HOM yield under our experimental conditions varied from 4.1% to 14.0 %, with a strong dependence on the OH concentration, indicating that the majority of observed HOMs formed through multiple OH-oxidation steps. The composition of the identified HOMs in the mass spectrum also supported this hypothesis. By injecting only phenol into the chamber, we found that phenol oxidation cannot be solely responsible for the observed HOMs in benzene experiments. When NOx was added to the chamber, HOM composition changed and many oxygenated nitrogen-containing products were observed in CI-APi-TOF. Upon seed aerosol injection, the HOM loss rate was higher than predicted by irreversible condensation, suggesting that some undetected oxygenated intermediates also condensed onto seed aerosol, which is in line with the hypothesis that some of the HOMs were formed in multi-generation OH oxidation. Based on our results, we conclude that HOM yield and composition in aromatic systems strongly depend on OH and VOC concentration and more studies are needed to fully understand this effect on the formation of HOMs and, consequently, SOA. We also suggest that the dependence of HOM yield on chamber conditions may explain part of the variability in SOA yields reported in the literature and strongly advise monitoring HOMs in future SOA studies. © Author(s) 2020.