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- ItemBatch and continuous lactic acid fermentation based on a multi-substrate approach(Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Olszewska-Widdrat, Agata; Alexandri, Maria; López-Gómez, José Pablo; Schneider, Roland; Venus, JoachimThe utilisation of waste materials and industrial residues became a priority within the bioeconomy concept and the production of biobased chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to continuously produce L-lactic acid from different renewable substrates, in a multi-substrate strategy mode. Based on batch experiments observations, Bacillus coagulans A534 strain was able to continuously metabolise acid whey, sugar beet molasses, sugar bread, alfalfa press green juice and tapioca starch. Additionally, reference experiments showed its behaviour in standard medium. Continuous fermentations indicated that the highest productivity was achieved when molasses was employed with a value of 10.34 g·L−1·h−1, while the lactic acid to sugar conversion yield was 0.86 g·g−1 . This study demonstrated that LA can be efficiently produced in continuous mode regardless the substrate, which is a huge advantage in comparison to other platform chemicals. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- ItemBiogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2016) Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, MonikaMethane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90 days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production.
- ItemStudy of Water Productivity of Industrial Hemp under Hot and Dry Conditions in Brandenburg (Germany) in the Year 2018(Basel : MDPI, 2020) Drastig, Katrin; Flemming, Inken; Gusovius, Hans-Jörg; Herppich, Werner B.Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a high-yielding multi-purpose crop, but its hydrological functioning is poorly understood. Studies on the interception processes in hemp have been lacking so far. This study contributes to the understanding of the influences of evaporation of intercepted water and other hydrological fluxes within plants of two cultivars, “Santhica 27” and “Ivory”, on the water productivity. To determine water productivity and evaporation from interception, field measurements were conducted on plants of both cultivars at different stages of development. Precipitation (P), throughfall (TF), transpiration (T), and volumetric water content (VWC) were measured along with leaf area index (LAI) and yield of selected plant components. For the entire vegetation period, the cumulative P of 44 mm was converted into 13 mm TF (30%). The inferred evaporation of intercepted water (I) was high at 31 mm (71%). For the assessment water fluxes, the evaporation of intercepted water must be considered in the decision-making process. Besides the LAI, the plant architecture and the meteorological conditions during the cropping cycle seem to be the main factors determining I in the case of plants of both cultivars. Water productivity (WPDM) of the whole plant varied between 3.07 kg m−3 for Ivory and 3.49 for Santhica 27. In the case of bast yield, WPDM was 0.39 kg m-3 for Santhica 27 and 0.45 kg m−3 for Ivory. After the propagation of the uncertainties, the bandwidth of the WPDM of the whole plant was between 0.42 kg m−3 and 2.57 kg m−3. For bast fiber a bandwidth of the WP between 0.06 kg m−3 and 0.33 kg m−3 was calculated. The results show furthermore that even with a precise examination of water productivity, a high bandwidth of local values is revealed on different cultivars. However, generic WP values for fiber crops are not attainable.
- ItemFlow Cytometric Assessment of the Morphological and Physiological Changes of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli in Response to Natural Antimicrobial Exposure(Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2018-11-14) Braschi, Giacomo; Patrignani, Francesca; Siroli, Lorenzo; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Schlueter, Oliver; Froehling, AntjeEssential oils (EOs) or their components represent one of the most promising natural, safe, and feasible alternatives to prevent the growth of food-borne pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli in food matrices. Although antimicrobial properties of EOs and their components are well-documented, limited and fragmented information is available on the changes induced by these compounds, even at sub-lethal concentrations, in the physiological properties of microbial cells. The aim of this study was to explore the morpho-physiological changes of L. monocytogenes Scott A and E. coli MG 1655 induced after 1 h exposure to different sub-lethal and lethal concentrations of citral, carvacrol, (E)-2-hexenal, and thyme EO. For this purpose, different cell viability parameters such as membrane integrity, esterase activity, and cytoplasmic cell membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry. Flow cytometric data revealed specific response patterns in relation to the strain, the natural antimicrobial and its concentrations. Both the target microbial strains showed an increased cell membrane permeabilization without a loss of esterase activity and cell membrane potential with increasing citral, carvacrol and thyme EO concentrations. By contrast, (E)-2-hexenal did not significantly affect the measured physiological properties of L. monocytogenes Scott A and E. coli MG 1655. The used approach allowed identifying the most effective natural antimicrobials in relation to the microbial target. Copyright © 2018 Braschi, Patrignani, Siroli, Lanciotti, Schlueter and Froehling.
- ItemHydrothermal carbonization (HTC): Near infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression for determination of selective components in HTC solid and liquid products derived from maize silage(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2014) Reza, M. Toufiq; Becker, Wolfgang; Sachsenheimer, Kerstin; Mumme, JanNear-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid method of predicting fiber components (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash) and selective compounds of hydrochar and corresponding process liquor produced by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of maize silage. Several HTC reaction times and temperatures were applied and NIR spectra of both HTC solids and liquids were obtained and correlated with concentration determined from van-Soest fiber analysis, IC, and UHPLC. Partial least-squares regression was applied to calculate models for the prediction of selective substances. The model developed with the spectra had the best performance in 3–7 factors with a correlation coefficient, which varied between 0.9275–0.9880 and 0.9364–0.9957 for compounds in solid and liquid, respectively. Calculated root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.42–5.06 mg/kg. The preliminary results indicate that NIR, a widely applied technique, might be applied to determine chemical compounds in HTC solid and liquid.
- ItemMolecular monitoring of the poplar wood chip microbiome as a function of storage strategy(Barking : Elsevier, 2021) Zöhrer, Julia; Probst, Maraike; Dumfort, Sabrina; Lenz, Hannes; Pecenka, Ralf; Insam, Heribert; Ascher-Jenull, JudithOne of the most challenging aspects of using wood chips as renewable energy source is the loss of biomass related to storage. Therefore, we installed three outdoor industrial-scale piles (250 m³) of poplar wood chips and monitored the bacterial and fungal communities by next-generation sequencing over a storage period of 120 d. Two of the three piles were supplemented with calcium dihydroxide (Ca(OH)2) (1.5%, 3% w/w) in order to test its potential as alkaline stabilization agent to preserve woody biomass during storage. Shifts in the microbial community composition occurred almost entirely in the beginning of the storage experiment, which we attribute to the temperature rise of up to 60 °C within the first week of storage. Later, however, we found little changes. Independent of Ca(OH)2 concentration, a consortium of lignocellulolytic and thermotolerant microorganisms dominated the stored wood chip microbiota emphasizing their role as key players during wood decomposition. Although the addition of Ca(OH)2 altered the physicochemical properties of wood chips, it did not prevent loss of biomass. Especially the pH was increased in Ca(OH)2 treated piles. However, only minor differences in the microbial communities’ composition were detected following Ca(OH)2 addition, highlighting the microbes tolerance towards and adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
- ItemPlasma-oxidative degradation of polyphenolics – Influence of non-thermal gas discharges with respect to fresh produce processing(Prague : ČSAZV, 2009) Grzegorzewski, F.; Schlüter, O.; Ehlbeck, J.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Geyer, M.; Kroh, L.W.; Rohn, S.Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technology to enhance the shelf-life of fresh or minimaly processed food. An efficient inactivation of microorganisms comes along with a moderate heating of the treated surface. To elucidate the influence of highly reactive plasma-immanent species on the stability and chemical behaviour of phytochemicals, several polyphenolics were exposed to an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The selected flavonoids are ideal target compounds due to their antioxidant activity protecting cells against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. Reactions were carried out at various radio-frequency voltages, using Ar as a feeding gas. Degradation was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
- ItemOptimierung solar unterstützter Trocknungsverfahren für landwirtschaftliche Produkte einschließlich integrierter hygroskopischer Kurzzeitspeicher : Schlußbericht(Potsdam : Leibniz-Institut für Agrartechnik und Bioökonomie, 2000) Fürll, Christian; Ziegler, Th.; Richter, I.-G.; Pecenka, R.; Maltry, W.; Gottschalk, K.; Müller, S.[no abstract available]
- ItemFarm water productivity in conventional and organic farming: Case studies of cow-calf farming systems in North Germany(Basel : MDPI AG, 2018) Vellenga, L.; Qualitz, G.; Drastig, K.The increase of organic agriculture in Germany raises the question of how water productivity differs from conventional agriculture. On three organic and two conventionally farming systems in Germany, water flows and water related indicators were quantified. Farm water productivity (FWP), farm water productivity of cow-calf production (FWPlivestock), and farm water productivity of food crop production (FWPfood crops) were calculated using the modeling software AgroHyd Farmmodel. The FWP was calculated on a mass and monetary basis. FWPlivestock showed the highest productivity on a mass basis occurring on a conventional farm with 0.09 kg m-3Winput, whereas one organic farm and one conventional farm showed the same results. On a monetary basis, organic cow-calf farming systems showed the highest FWPlivestock, with 0.28 € m-3Winput. Since the productivity of the farm depends strongly on the individual cultivated plants, FWPfood crops was compared at the level of the single crop. The results show furthermore that even with a precise examination of farm water productivity, a high bandwidth of temporal and local values are revealed on different farms: generic FWP for food crops and livestock are not within reach.
- ItemApplication of hue spectra fingerprinting during cold storage and shelf-life of packaged sweet cherry(Cham : Springer, 2020) Le Nguyen, Lien Phuong; Visy, Anna; Baranyai, László; Friedrich, László; Mahajan, Pramod V.Presented work investigated the application of a new color analysis technique in post-harvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Hudson’). The hue spectra fingerprinting creates a histogram of image colors by summarizing the saturation. The advantage of this calculation method is that vivid colors make peaks while neutral background color is eliminated without object segmentation. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to estimate reference parameters during 9 d cold storage at 10 ± 0.5 °C (RH = 90 ± 1%) and following 2 d shelf-life at 20 ± 0.5 °C. The reference parameters of respiration, weight loss, fruit firmness and total soluble solid (TSS) content were measured. Samples were split into seven groups according to the number of perforations of polypropylene film and fructose concentration of moisture absorber. It was observed that parameters TSS and fruit firmness were the most sensitive to the length of storage. Weight loss was affected significantly by packaging. All reference parameters were estimated by PLS model with R2 > 0.917, but weight loss and respiration obtained high estimation error of RMSE% = 48.02% and 11.76%, respectively. TSS and fruit firmness prediction were successful with RMSE% = 0.84% and 1.85%, respectively. Desiccation and color change of peduncle became visible in the green range of hue spectra. Color change of red fruit was observed with decreasing saturation in the red range of hue spectra. Our findings suggest that hue spectra fingerprinting can be a useful nondestructive method for monitoring quality change of sweet cherry during post-harvest handling and shelf-life. © 2020, The Author(s).