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Now showing 1 - 10 of 364
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    Complex refractive indices of Saharan dust samples at visible and near UV wavelengths: A laboratory study
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2012) Wagner, R.; Ajtai, T.; Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.; Linke, C.; Müller, T.; Schnaiter, M.; Vragel, M.
    We have retrieved the wavelength-dependent imaginary parts of the complex refractive index for five different Saharan dust aerosol particles of variable mineralogical composition at wavelengths between 305 and 955 nm. The dust particles were generated by dispersing soil samples into a laboratory aerosol chamber, typically yielding particle sizes with mean diameters ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 μm and maximum diameters from 2 to 4 μm. The extinction and absorption coefficients as well as the number size distribution of the dust particles were simultaneously measured by various established techniques. An inversion scheme based on a spheroidal dust model was employed to deduce the refractive indices. The retrieved imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were in the range from 0.003 to 0.005, 0.005 to 0.011, and 0.016 to 0.050 at the wavelengths 955, 505, and 305 nm. The hematite content of the dust particles was determined by electron-microscopical single particle analysis. Hematite volume fractions in the range from 1.1 to 2.7% were found for the different dusts, a range typical for atmospheric mineral dust. We have performed a sensitivity study to assess how accurately the retrieved imaginary refractive indices could be reproduced by calculations with mixing rule approximations using the experimentally determined hematite contents as input.
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    Optical properties of long-range transported Saharan dust over Barbados as measured by dual-wavelength depolarization Raman lidar measurements
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2015) Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Schepanski, K.; Toledano, C.; Schäfler, A.; Ansmann, A.; Weinzierl, B.
    Dual-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar observations were performed during the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud interaction Experiment in Barbados in June and July 2013 to characterize the optical properties and vertical distribution of long-range transported Saharan dust after transport across the Atlantic Ocean. Four major dust events were studied during the measurements from 15 June to 13 July 2013 with aerosol optical depths at 532 nm of up to 0.6. The vertical aerosol distribution was characterized by a three-layer structure consisting of the boundary layer, the entrainment or mixing layer and the pure Saharan dust layer. The upper boundary of the pure dust layer reached up to 4.5 km in height. The contribution of the pure dust layer was about half of the total aerosol optical depth at 532 nm. The total dust contribution was about 50–70 % of the total aerosol optical depth at 532 nm. The lidar ratio within the pure dust layer was found to be wavelength independent with mean values of 53 ± 5 sr at 355 nm and 56 ± 7 sr at 532 nm. For the particle linear depolarization ratio, wavelength-independent mean values of 0.26 ± 0.03 at 355 nm and 0.27 ± 0.01 at 532 nm have been found.
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    Cloud water composition during HCCT-2010: Scavenging efficiencies, solute concentrations, and droplet size dependence of inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) van Pinxteren, Dominik; Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Mertes, Stephan; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Schneider, Johannes; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Herrmann, Hartmut
    Cloud water samples were taken in September/October 2010 at Mt. Schmücke in a rural, forested area in Germany during the Lagrange-type Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010) cloud experiment. Besides bulk collectors, a three-stage and a five-stage collector were applied and samples were analysed for inorganic ions (SO42−,NO3−, NH4+, Cl−, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), H2O2 (aq), S(IV), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Campaign volume-weighted mean concentrations were 191, 142, and 39 µmol L−1 for ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate respectively, between 4 and 27 µmol L−1 for minor ions, 5.4 µmol L−1 for H2O2 (aq), 1.9 µmol L−1 for S(IV), and 3.9 mgC L−1 for DOC. The concentrations compare well to more recent European cloud water data from similar sites. On a mass basis, organic material (as DOC × 1.8) contributed 20–40 % (event means) to total solute concentrations and was found to have non-negligible impact on cloud water acidity. Relative standard deviations of major ions were 60–66 % for solute concentrations and 52–80 % for cloud water loadings (CWLs). The similar variability of solute concentrations and CWLs together with the results of back-trajectory analysis and principal component analysis, suggests that concentrations in incoming air masses (i.e. air mass history), rather than cloud liquid water content (LWC), were the main factor controlling bulk solute concentrations for the cloud studied. Droplet effective radius was found to be a somewhat better predictor for cloud water total ionic content (TIC) than LWC, even though no single explanatory variable can fully describe TIC (or solute concentration) variations in a simple functional relation due to the complex processes involved. Bulk concentrations typically agreed within a factor of 2 with co-located measurements of residual particle concentrations sampled by a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) and analysed by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), with the deviations being mainly caused by systematic differences and limitations of the approaches (such as outgassing of dissolved gases during residual particle sampling). Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) of aerosol constituents were 0.56–0.94, 0.79–0.99, 0.71–98, and 0.67–0.92 for SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, and DOC respectively when calculated as event means with in-cloud data only. SEs estimated using data from an upwind site were substantially different in many cases, revealing the impact of gas-phase uptake (for volatile constituents) and mass losses across Mt. Schmücke likely due to physical processes such as droplet scavenging by trees and/or entrainment. Drop size-resolved cloud water concentrations of major ions SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ revealed two main profiles: decreasing concentrations with increasing droplet size and “U” shapes. In contrast, profiles of typical coarse particle mode minor ions were often increasing with increasing drop size, highlighting the importance of a species' particle concentration size distribution for the development of size-resolved solute concentration patterns. Concentration differences between droplet size classes were typically < 2 for major ions from the three-stage collector and somewhat more pronounced from the five-stage collector, while they were much larger for minor ions. Due to a better separation of droplet populations, the five-stage collector was capable of resolving some features of solute size dependencies not seen in the three-stage data, especially sharp concentration increases (up to a factor of 5–10) in the smallest droplets for many solutes.
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    Intercomparison of air ion spectrometers: An evaluation of results in varying conditions
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Gagné, S.; Lehtipalo, K.; Manninen, H.E.; Nieminen, T.; Schobesberger, S.; Franchin, A.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Boulon, J.; Sonntag, A.; Mirme, S.; Mirme, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Petäjä, T.; Asmi, E.; Kulmala, M.
    We evaluated 11 air ion spectrometers from Airel Ltd. after they had spent one year in field measurements as a part of the EUCAARI project: 5 Air Ion Spectrometers (AIS), 5 Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometers (NAIS) and one Airborne NAIS (ANAIS). This is the first time that an ANAIS is evaluated and compared so extensively. The ion spectrometers' mobility and concentration accuracy was evaluated. Their measurements of ambient air were compared between themselves and to reference instruments: a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), a Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzer (BSMA), and an Ion-DMPS. We report on the simultaneous measurement of a new particle formation (NPF) event by all 11 instruments and the 3 reference instruments. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the size distribution of ions and particles is measured by so many ion spectrometers during a NPF event. The new particle formation rates (~0.2 cm−3 s−1 for ions and ~2 cm−3 s−1 for particles) and growth rates (~25 nm h−1 in the 3–7 nm size range) were calculated for all the instruments. The NAISs and the ANAIS gave higher concentrations and formation rates than the AISs. For example, the AISs agreed with the BSMA within 11 % and 28 % for negative and positive ion concentration respectively, whereas the NAISs agreed within 23 % and 29 %. Finally, based on the results presented here, we give guidelines for data evaluation, when data from different individual ion spectrometers are compared.
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    Towards closing the gap between hygroscopic growth and activation for secondary organic aerosol - Part 2: Theoretical approaches
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2009) Wex, H.; Petters, M.D.; Carrico, C.M.; Hallbauer, E.; Massling, A.; McMeeking, G.R.; Poulain, L.; Wu, Z.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Stratmann, F.
    We examine the hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol particles generated through the reaction of α-pinene and ozone using a continuous flow reaction chamber. The water activity versus composition relationship is calculated from measurements of growth factors at relative humidities up to 99.6% and from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei activity. The observed relationships are complex, suggesting highly non-ideal behavior for aerosol water contents at relative humidities less than 98%. We present two models that may explain the observed water activity-composition relationship equally well. The first model assumes that the aerosol is a pseudo binary mixture of infinitely water soluble compounds and sparingly soluble compounds that gradually enter the solution as dilution increases. The second model is used to compute the Gibbs free energy of the aerosol-water mixture and shows that the aerosol behaves similarly to what can be expected for single compounds that contain a certain fraction of oxygenated and non-polar functional groups.
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    Chemical composition and mixing-state of ice residuals sampled within mixed phase clouds
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Ebert, M.; Worringen, A.; Benker, N.; Mertes, S.; Weingartner, E.; Weinbruch, S.
    During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI). Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated) aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN) were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR) samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In terms of number lead-bearing particles are enriched by a factor of approximately 25, complex internal mixtures with silicates or metal oxides as major components by a factor of 11, and mixtures of secondary aerosol and carbonaceous material (C-O-S particles) by a factor of 2. Other particle groups (sulfates, sea salt, Ca-rich particles, external silicates) observed in the ice-residual samples cannot be assigned unambiguously as IN. Between 9 and 24% of all IR are Pb-bearing particles. Pb was found as major component in around 10% of these particles (PbO, PbCl2). In the other particles, Pb was found as some 100 nm sized agglomerates consisting of 3–8 nm sized primary particles (PbS, elemental Pb). C-O-S particles are present in the IR at an abundance of 17–27%. The soot component within these particles is strongly aged. Complex internal mixtures occur in the IR at an abundance of 9–15%. Most IN identified at the Jungfraujoch station are internal mixtures containing anthropogenic components (either as main or minor constituent), and it is concluded that admixture of the anthropogenic component is responsible for the increased IN efficiency within mixed phase clouds. The mixing state appears to be a key parameter for the ice nucleation behaviour that cannot be predicted from the sole knowledge of the main component of an individual particle.
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    Out of Africa: High aerosol concentrations in the upper troposphere over Africa
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2003) Heintzenberg, J.; Hermann, M.; Theiss, D.
    In the year 2000, six flights (three southbound and three northbound) of the CARIBIC project were conducted between Germany and two destinations in the southern hemisphere (Windhoek, Namibia and Cape Town, South Africa). In the present report, results on particle number concentrations are discussed in three size ranges (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm particle diameter) during the unique transequatorial Africa flights. The flights covered a total of about 80 h in May, July, and December. Thus, no claim can be made for long-term representativeness of the aerosol data. Nevertheless, they are the first upper systematic tropospheric transequatorial aerosol profiles over Africa. The average aerosol results show a broad maximum, roughly symmetrical to the equator, which compares well in latitudinal extent to a maximum of CO concentrations measured on the same flights. This export of continental surface aerosol to the upper troposphere will be dispersed on a global scale both with the easterly flow near the equator and with the westerlies in the adjacent subtropical regions. There was strong evidence of recent new particle formation before aerosol arrival at flight level, in particular during the time periods between 9:00 and 13:00 local time over Africa. Direct and indirect climate effects of the respective particulate matter remain to be investigated by future flights with the ongoing extension of the CARIBIC payload towards size-resolved measurements above 100 nm particle diameter. At the same time global chemical transport models and aerosol dynamics models need to be extended to be able to reproduce the CARIBIC findings over Africa.
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    Ion-particle interactions during particle formation and growth at a coniferous forest site in central Europe
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Gonser, S.G.; Klein, F.; Birmili, W.; Größ, J.; Kulmala, M.; Manninen, H.E.; Wiedensohler, A.; Held, A.
    In this work, we examined the interaction of ions and neutral particles during atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) events. The analysis is based on simultaneous field measurements of atmospheric ions and total particles using a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) across the diameter range 2–25 nm. The Waldstein research site is located in a spruce forest in NE Bavaria, Southern Germany, known for enhanced radon concentrations, presumably leading to elevated ionization rates. Our observations show that the occurrence of the ion nucleation mode preceded that of the total particle nucleation mode during all analyzed NPF events. The time difference between the appearance of 2 nm ions and 2 nm total particles was typically about 20 to 30 min. A cross correlation analysis showed a rapid decrease of the time difference between the ion and total modes during the growth process. Eventually, this time delay vanished when both ions and total particles did grow to larger diameters. Considering the growth rates of ions and total particles separately, total particles exhibited enhanced growth rates at diameters below 15 nm. This observation cannot be explained by condensation or coagulation, because these processes would act more efficiently on charged particles compared to neutral particles. To explain our observations, we propose a mechanism including recombination and attachment of continuously present cluster ions with the ion nucleation mode and the neutral nucleation mode, respectively.
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    Sea salt emission, transport and influence on size-segregated nitrate simulation: A case study in northwestern Europe by WRF-Chem
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Chen, Ying; Cheng, Yafang; Ma, Nan; Wolke, Ralf; Nordmann, Stephan; Schüttauf, Stephanie; Ran, Liang; Wehner, Birgit; Birmili, Wolfram; van der Gon, Hugo A.C. Denier; Mu, Qing; Barthel, Stefan; Spindler, Gerald; Stieger, Bastian; Müller, Konrad; Zheng, Guang-Jie; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang; Wiedensohler, Alfred
    Sea salt aerosol (SSA) is one of the major components of primary aerosols and has significant impact on the formation of secondary inorganic particles mass on a global scale. In this study, the fully online coupled WRF-Chem model was utilized to evaluate the SSA emission scheme and its influence on the nitrate simulation in a case study in Europe during 10–20 September 2013. Meteorological conditions near the surface, wind pattern and thermal stratification structure were well reproduced by the model. Nonetheless, the coarse-mode (PM1 − 10) particle mass concentration was substantially overestimated due to the overestimation of SSA and nitrate. Compared to filter measurements at four EMEP stations (coastal stations: Bilthoven, Kollumerwaard and Vredepeel; inland station: Melpitz), the model overestimated SSA concentrations by a factor of 8–20. We found that this overestimation was mainly caused by overestimated SSA emissions over the North Sea during 16–20 September. Over the coastal regions, SSA was injected into the continental free troposphere through an “aloft bridge” (about 500 to 1000 m above the ground), a result of the different thermodynamic properties and planetary boundary layer (PBL) structure between continental and marine regions. The injected SSA was further transported inland and mixed downward to the surface through downdraft and PBL turbulence. This process extended the influence of SSA to a larger downwind region, leading, for example, to an overestimation of SSA at Melpitz, Germany, by a factor of  ∼  20. As a result, the nitrate partitioning fraction (ratio between particulate nitrate and the summation of particulate nitrate and gas-phase nitric acid) increased by about 20 % for the coarse-mode nitrate due to the overestimation of SSA at Melpitz. However, no significant difference in the partitioning fraction for the fine-mode nitrate was found. About 140 % overestimation of the coarse-mode nitrate resulted from the influence of SSA at Melpitz. In contrast, the overestimation of SSA inhibited the nitrate particle formation in the fine mode by about 20 % because of the increased consumption of precursor by coarse-mode nitrate formation.
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    Maritime aerosol network as a component of AERONET - First results and comparison with global aerosol models and satellite retrievals
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Smirnov, A.; Holben, B.N.; Giles, D.M.; Slutsker, I.; O'Neill, N.T.; Eck, T.F.; Macke, A.; Croot, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Sakerin, S.M.; Smyth, T.J.; Zielinski, T.; Zibordi, G.; Goes, J.I.; Harvey, M.J.; Quinn, P.K.; Nelson, N.B.; Radionov, V.F.; Duarte, C.M.; Losno, R.; Sciare, J.; Voss, K.J.; Kinne, S.; Nalli, N.R.; Joseph, E.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Covert, D.S.; Gulev, S.K.; Milinevsky, G.; Larouche, P.; Belanger, S.; Horne, E.; Chin, M.; Remer, L.A.; Kahn, R.A.; Reid, J.S.; Schulz, M.; Heald, C.L.; Zhang, J.; Lapina, K.; Kleidman, R.G.; Griesfeller, J.; Gaitley, B.J.; Tan, Q.; Diehl, T.L.
    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops hand-held sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.