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- ItemA manual and an automatic TERS based virus discrimination(Cambridge : RSC Publ., 2015) Olschewski, Konstanze; Kämmer, Evelyn; Stöckel, Stephan; Bocklitz, Thomas; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Zell, Roland; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Popp, JürgenRapid techniques for virus identification are more relevant today than ever. Conventional virus detection and identification strategies generally rest upon various microbiological methods and genomic approaches, which are not suited for the analysis of single virus particles. In contrast, the highly sensitive spectroscopic technique tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) allows the characterisation of biological nano-structures like virions on a single-particle level. In this study, the feasibility of TERS in combination with chemometrics to discriminate two pathogenic viruses, Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and Porcine teschovirus (PTV), was investigated. In a first step, chemometric methods transformed the spectral data in such a way that a rapid visual discrimination of the two examined viruses was enabled. In a further step, these methods were utilised to perform an automatic quality rating of the measured spectra. Spectra that passed this test were eventually used to calculate a classification model, through which a successful discrimination of the two viral species based on TERS spectra of single virus particles was also realised with a classification accuracy of 91%.
- ItemRaman spectroscopy follows time-dependent changes in T lymphocytes isolated from spleen of endotoxemic mice(Rockville : American Association of Immunologists, 2019) Ramoji, Anuradha; Ryabchykov, Oleg; Galler, Kerstin; Tannert, Astrid; Markwart, Robby; Requardt, Robert Pascal; Rubio, Ignacio; Bauer, Michael; Bocklitz, Thomas W.; Popp, Jürgen; Neugebauer, UteT lymphocytes (T cells) are highly specialized members of the adaptive immune system and hold the key to the understanding the hosts’ response toward invading pathogen or pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as LPS. In this study, noninvasive Raman spectroscopy is presented as a label-free method to follow LPS-induced changes in splenic T cells during acute and postacute inflammatory phases (1, 4, 10, and 30 d) with a special focus on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of endotoxemic C57BL/6 mice. Raman spectral analysis reveals highest chemical differences between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells originating from the control and LPS-treated mice during acute inflammation, and the differences are visible up to 10 d after the LPS insult. In the postacute phase, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from treated and untreated mice could not be differentiated anymore, suggesting that T cells largely regained their original status. In sum, the biological information obtained from Raman spectra agrees with immunological readouts demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited, label-free method for following splenic T cell activation in systemic inflammation from acute to postacute phases. The method can also be applied to directly study tissue sections as is demonstrated for spleen tissue one day after LPS insult.T lymphocytes (T cells) are highly specialized members of the adaptive immune system and hold the key to the understanding the hosts’ response toward invading pathogen or pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as LPS. In this study, noninvasive Raman spectroscopy is presented as a label-free method to follow LPS-induced changes in splenic T cells during acute and postacute inflammatory phases (1, 4, 10, and 30 d) with a special focus on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of endotoxemic C57BL/6 mice. Raman spectral analysis reveals highest chemical differences between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells originating from the control and LPS-treated mice during acute inflammation, and the differences are visible up to 10 d after the LPS insult. In the postacute phase, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from treated and untreated mice could not be differentiated anymore, suggesting that T cells largely regained their original status. In sum, the biological information obtained from Raman spectra agrees with immunological readouts demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited, label-free method for following splenic T cell activation in systemic inflammation from acute to postacute phases. The method can also be applied to directly study tissue sections as is demonstrated for spleen tissue one day after LPS insult.
- ItemIn-vivo Raman spectroscopy: from basics to applications(Bellingham, Wash. : SPIE, 2018) Cordero, Eliana; Latka, Ines; Matthäus, Christian; Schie, Iwan W.; Popp, JürgenFor more than two decades, Raman spectroscopy has found widespread use in biological and medical applications. The instrumentation and the statistical evaluation procedures have matured, enabling the lengthy transition from ex-vivo demonstration to in-vivo examinations. This transition goes hand-in-hand with many technological developments and tightly bound requirements for a successful implementation in a clinical environment, which are often difficult to assess for novice scientists in the field. This review outlines the required instrumentation and instrumentation parameters, designs, and developments of fiber optic probes for the in-vivo applications in a clinical setting. It aims at providing an overview of contemporary technology and clinical trials and attempts to identify future developments necessary to bring the emerging technology to the clinical end users. A comprehensive overview of in-vivo applications of fiber optic Raman probes to characterize different tissue and disease types is also given.
- ItemNew perspectives for viability studies with high-content analysis Raman spectroscopy (HCA-RS)(Berlin : Nature Publishing, 2019) Mondol, Abdullah S.; Töpfer, Natalie; Rüger, Jan; Neugebauer, Ute; Popp, Jürgen; Schie, Iwan W.Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in clinical and molecular biological studies, providing high chemical specificity without the necessity of labels and with little-to-no sample preparation. However, currently performed Raman-based studies of eukaryotic cells are still very laborious and time-consuming, resulting in a low number of sampled cells and questionable statistical validations. Furthermore, the approach requires a trained specialist to perform and analyze the experiments, rendering the method less attractive for most laboratories. In this work, we present a new high-content analysis Raman spectroscopy (HCA-RS) platform that overcomes the current challenges of conventional Raman spectroscopy implementations. HCA-RS allows sampling of a large number of cells under different physiological conditions without any user interaction. The performance of the approach is successfully demonstrated by the development of a Raman-based cell viability assay, i.e., the effect of doxorubicin concentration on monocytic THP-1 cells. A statistical model, principal component analysis combined with support vector machine (PCA-SVM), was found to successfully predict the percentage of viable cells in a mixed population and is in good agreement to results obtained by a standard cell viability assay. This study demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a standard high-throughput tool for clinical and biological applications.
- ItemThe Bouguer-Beer-Lambert Law: Shining Light on the Obscure(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH Verl., 2020) Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Pahlow, Susanne; Popp, JürgenThe Beer-Lambert law is unquestionably the most important law in optical spectroscopy and indispensable for the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of spectroscopic data. As such, every spectroscopist should know its limits and potential pitfalls, arising from its application, by heart. It is the goal of this work to review these limits and pitfalls, as well as to provide solutions and explanations to guide the reader. This guidance will allow a deeper understanding of spectral features, which cannot be explained by the Beer-Lambert law, because they arise from electromagnetic effects/the wave nature of light. Those features include band shifts and intensity changes based exclusively upon optical conditions, i. e. the method chosen to record the spectra, the substrate and the form of the sample. As such, the review will be an essential tool towards a full understanding of optical spectra and their quantitative interpretation based not only on oscillator positions, but also on their strengths and damping constants.
- ItemNovel Biobased Self-Healing Ionomers Derived from Itaconic Acid Derivates(Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2021) Meurer, Josefine; Hniopek, Julian; Dahlke, Jan; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Zechel, Stefan; Hager, Martin D.This article presents novel biobased ionomers featuring self-healing abilities. These smart materials are synthesized from itaconic acid derivates. Large quantities of itaconic acid can be produced from diverse biomass like corn, rice, and others. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of their thermal and mechanical properties via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and FT-Raman and FT-IR measurements as well as dynamic mechanic analysis. Within all these measurements, different kinds of structure-property relationships could be derived from these measurements. For example, the proportion of ionic groups enormously influences the self-healing efficiency. The investigation of the self-healing abilities reveals healing efficiencies up to 99% in 2 h at 90 °C for the itaconic acid based ionomer with the lowest ionic content. © 2020 The Authors. Macromolecular Rapid Communications published by Wiley-VCH GmbH
- ItemStealth Effect of Short Polyoxazolines in Graft Copolymers: Minor Changes of Backbone End Group Determine Liver Cell-Type Specificity(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2021) Muljajew, Irina; Huschke, Sophie; Ramoji, Anuradha; Cseresnyés, Zoltán; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Nischang, Ivo; Foo, Wanling; Popp, Jürgen; Figge, Marc Thilo; Weber, Christine; Bauer, Michael; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Press, Adrian T.Dye-loaded micelles of 10 nm diameter formed from amphiphilic graft copolymers composed of a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) backbone and hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) side chains with a degree of polymerization of 15 were investigated concerning their cellular interaction and uptake in vitro as well as their interaction with local and circulating cells of the reticuloendothelial system in the liver by intravital microscopy. Despite the high molar mass of the individual macromolecules (Mn ≈ 20 kg mol-1), backbone end group modification by attachment of a hydrophilic anionic fluorescent probe strongly affected the in vivo performance. To understand these effects, the end group was additionally modified by the attachment of four methacrylic acid repeating units. Although various micelles appeared similar in dynamic light scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, changes in the micelles were evident from principal component analysis of the Raman spectra. Whereas an efficient stealth effect was found for micelles formed from polymers with anionically charged or thiol end groups, a hydrophobic end group altered the micelles' structure sufficiently to adapt cell-type specificity and stealth properties in the liver. © 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.
- ItemNanoboomerang-based inverse metasurfaces - a promising path towards ultrathin photonic devices for transmission operation(College Park : American Institute of Physics, 2017) Zeisberger, Matthias; Schneidewind, Henrik; Hübner, Uwe; Popp, Jürgen; Schmidt, Markus A.Metasurfaces have revolutionized photonics due to their ability to shape phase fronts as requested and to tune beam directionality using nanoscale metallic or dielectric scatterers. Here we reveal inverse metasurfaces showing superior properties compared to their positive counterparts if transmission mode operation is considered. The key advantage of such slot-type metasurfaces is the strong reduction of light in the parallel-polarization state, making the crossed-polarization, being essential for metasurface operation, dominant and highly visible. In the experiment, we show an up to four times improvement in polarization extinction for the individual metasurface element geometry consisting of deep subwavelength nanoboomerangs with feature sizes of the order of 100 nm. As confirmed by simulations, strong plasmonic hybridization yields two spectrally separated plasmonic resonances, ultimately allowing for the desired phase and scattering engineering in transmission. Due to the design flexibility of inverse metasurfaces, a large number of highly integrated ultra-flat photonic elements can be envisioned, examples of which include monolithic lenses for telecommunications and spectroscopy, beam shaper or generator for particle trapping or acceleration or sophisticated polarization control for microscopy.
- ItemPHONA - photonische Nanomaterialien : Schlussbericht ; Laufzeit des Vorhabens: 01.12.2009-30.11.2014(Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB), 2014) Hübner, Uwe; Popp, Jürgen[no abstract available]
- ItemBiochemical Characterization of Mouse Retina of an Alzheimer's Disease Model by Raman Spectroscopy(Washington, DC : ACS Publications, 2020) Stiebing, Clara; Jahn, Izabella J.; Schmitt, Michael; Keijzer, Nanda; Kleemann, Robert; Kiliaan, Amanda J.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Popp, JürgenThe presence of biomarkers characteristic for Alzheimer's disease in the retina is a controversial topic. Raman spectroscopy offers information on the biochemical composition of tissues. Thus, it could give valuable insight into the diagnostic value of retinal analysis. Within the present study, retinas of a double transgenic mouse model, that expresses a chimeric mouse/human amyloid precursor protein and a mutant form of human presenilin 1, and corresponding control group were subjected to ex vivo Raman imaging. The Raman data recorded on cross sections of whole eyes highlight the layered structure of the retina in a label-free manner. Based on the Raman information obtained from en face mounted retina samples, a discrimination between healthy and Alzheimer's disease retinal tissue can be done with an accuracy of 85.9%. For this a partial least squares-linear discriminant analysis was applied. Therefore, although no macromolecular changes in form of, i.e., amyloid beta plaques, can be noticed based on Raman spectroscopy, subtle biochemical changes happening in the retina could lead to Alzheimer's disease identification. ©