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    Guidance of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin structured hydrogel films
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2014) Kasten, Annika; Naser, Tamara; Brüllhoff, Kristina; Fiedler, Jörg; Müller, Petra; Möller, Martin; Rychly, Joachim; Groll, Jürgen; Brenner, Rolf E.; Engler, Adam J.
    Designing of implant surfaces using a suitable ligand for cell adhesion to stimulate specific biological responses of stem cells will boost the application of regenerative implants. For example, materials that facilitate rapid and guided migration of stem cells would promote tissue regeneration. When seeded on fibronectin (FN) that was homogeneously immmobilized to NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), which otherwise prevents protein binding and cell adhesion, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) revealed a faster migration, increased spreading and a more rapid organization of different cellular components for cell adhesion on fibronectin than on a glass surface. To further explore, how a structural organization of FN controls the behavior of MSC, adhesive lines of FN with varying width between 10 µm and 80 µm and spacings between 5 µm and 20 µm that did not allow cell adhesion were generated. In dependance on both line width and gaps, cells formed adjacent cell contacts, were individually organized in lines, or bridged the lines. With decreasing sizes of FN lines, speed and directionality of cell migration increased, which correlated with organization of the actin cytoskeleton, size and shape of the nuclei as well as of focal adhesions. Together, defined FN lines and gaps enabled a fine tuning of the structural organization of cellular components and migration. Microstructured adhesive substrates can mimic the extracellular matrix in vivo and stimulate cellular mechanisms which play a role in tissue regeneration.
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    Influence of diluted acid mixtures on selective etching of MHz- and kHz-fs-laser inscribed structures in YAG
    (Washington, DC : OSA, 2021) Hasse, Kore; Kip, Detlef; Kränkel, Christian
    We show that the inscription velocity of fs-laser written structures in YAG crystals can be significantly improved by the use of MHz repetition rates for the writing process. Using a 10 MHz inscription laser, record high writing velocities up to 100 mm/s are achieved. Also, the selective etching process is accelerated using a diluted mixture of 22% H3PO4 and 24% H2SO4. The diluted mixture enables selective etching of up to 9.6 mm long, 1 µm wide and 18 µm high microchannels in 23 days. The etching parameter D of 11.2 µm2/s is a factor of 3 higher than previously reported and the selectivity is even increased by an order of magnitude.
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    Ultrafast inter-ionic charge transfer of transition-metal complexes mapped by femtosecond x-ray powder diffraction
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2013) Zamponi, F.; Freyer, B.; Juvé, V.; Stingl, J.; Woerner, M.; Chergui, M.; Elsaesser, T.
    Transient electron density maps are derived from x-ray diffraction patterns of photoexcited [Fe(bpy)3]2+(PF6 -)2 powder. Upon photoexcitation, the 5T 2 quintet state reveals a charge transfer from the PF 6- ions and from the Fe atoms to neighboring bpy units. The charge transfer from the Fe points to a partial and weak charge-transfer character of this state.
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    Batch and continuous lactic acid fermentation based on a multi-substrate approach
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Olszewska-Widdrat, Agata; Alexandri, Maria; López-Gómez, José Pablo; Schneider, Roland; Venus, Joachim
    The utilisation of waste materials and industrial residues became a priority within the bioeconomy concept and the production of biobased chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to continuously produce L-lactic acid from different renewable substrates, in a multi-substrate strategy mode. Based on batch experiments observations, Bacillus coagulans A534 strain was able to continuously metabolise acid whey, sugar beet molasses, sugar bread, alfalfa press green juice and tapioca starch. Additionally, reference experiments showed its behaviour in standard medium. Continuous fermentations indicated that the highest productivity was achieved when molasses was employed with a value of 10.34 g·L−1·h−1, while the lactic acid to sugar conversion yield was 0.86 g·g−1 . This study demonstrated that LA can be efficiently produced in continuous mode regardless the substrate, which is a huge advantage in comparison to other platform chemicals. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Probing Oxide Reduction and Phase Transformations at the Au-TiO2 Interface by Vibrational Spectroscopy
    (Bussum : Baltzer, 2017-8-17) Pougin, Anna; Lüken, Alexander; Klinkhammer, Christina; Hiltrop, Dennis; Kauer, Max; Tölle, Katharina; Havenith-Newen, Martina; Morgenstern, Karina; Grünert, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin; Strunk, Jennifer
    By a combination of FT-NIR Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy of CO adsorption under ultrahigh vacuum conditions (UHV-IR) and Raman spectroscopy in the line scanning mode the formation of a reduced titania phase in a commercial Au/TiO2 catalyst and in freshly prepared Au/anatase catalysts was detected. The reduced phase, formed at the Au-TiO2 interface, can serve as nucleation point for the formation of stoichiometric rutile. TinO2n−1 Magnéli phases, structurally resembling the rutile phase, might be involved in this process. The formation of the reduced phase and the rutilization process is clearly linked to the presence of gold nanoparticles and it does not proceed under similar conditions with the pure titania sample. Phase transformations might be both thermally or light induced, however, the colloidal deposition synthesis of the Au/TiO2 catalysts is clearly ruled out as cause for the formation of the reduced phase.
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    Application of Matched-Filter Concepts to Unbiased Selection of Data in Pump-Probe Experiments with Free Electron Lasers
    (Basel : MDPI, 2017-06-16) Callegari, Carlo; Takanashi, Tsukasa; Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Motomura, Koji; Iablonskyi, Denys; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Mondal, Subhendu; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Nishiyama, Toshiyuki; Matsunami, Kenji; Johnsson, Per; Piseri, Paolo; Sansone, Giuseppe; Dubrouil, Antoine; Reduzzi, Maurizio; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Vozzi, Caterina; Devetta, Michele; Faccialà, Davide; Calegari, Francesca; Castrovilli, Mattea; Coreno, Marcello; Alagia, Michele; Schütte, Bernd; Berrah, Nora; Plekan, Oksana; Finetti, Paola; Ferrari, Eugenio; Prince, Kevin; Ueda, Kiyoshi
    Pump-probe experiments are commonly used at Free Electron Lasers (FEL) to elucidate the femtosecond dynamics of atoms, molecules, clusters, liquids and solids. Maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements is often a primary need of the experiment, and the aggregation of repeated, rapid, scans of the pump-probe delay is preferable to a single long-lasting scan. The limited availability of beamtime makes it impractical to repeat measurements indiscriminately, and the large, rapid flow of single-shot data that need to be processed and aggregated into a dataset, makes it difficult to assess the quality of a measurement in real time. In post-analysis it is then necessary to devise unbiased criteria to select or reject datasets, and to assign the weight with which they enter the analysis. One such case was the measurement of the lifetime of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay in the weakly-bound neon dimer. We report on the method we used to accomplish this goal for the pump-probe delay scans that constitute the core of the measurement; namely we report on the use of simple auto- and cross-correlation techniques based on the general concept of “matched filter”. We are able to unambiguously assess the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each scan, which then becomes the weight with which a scan enters the average of multiple scans. We also observe a clear gap in the values of SNR, and we discard all the scans below a SNR of 0.45. We are able to generate an average delay scan profile, suitable for further analysis: in our previous work we used it for comparison with theory. Here we argue that the method is sufficiently simple and devoid of human action to be applicable not only in post-analysis, but also for the real-time assessment of the quality of a dataset.
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    Research Update: Van-der-Waals epitaxy of layered chalcogenide Sb2Te3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition
    (Melville, NY : AIP Publ., 2017) Hilmi, Isom; Lotnyk, Andriy; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Schumacher, Philipp; Rauschenbach, Bernd
    An attempt to deposit a high quality epitaxial thin film of a two-dimensionally bonded (layered) chalcogenide material with van-der-Waals (vdW) epitaxy is of strong interest for non-volatile memory application. In this paper, the epitaxial growth of an exemplary layered chalcogenide material, i.e., stoichiometric Sb2Te3 thin films, is reported. The films were produced on unreconstructed highly lattice-mismatched Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were grown by vdW epitaxy in a two-dimensional mode. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the films possess a trigonal Sb2Te3 structure. The single atomic Sb/Te termination layer on the Si surface was formed initializing the thin film growth. This work demonstrates a straightforward method to deposit vdW-epitaxial layered chalcogenides and, at the same time, opens up the feasibility to fabricate chalcogenide vdW heterostructures by PLD.
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    The spin-flip scattering effect in the spin transport in silicon doped with bismuth
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2017) Ezhevskii, A.A.; Detochenko, A.P.; Soukhorukov, A.V.; Guseinov, D.V.; Kudrin, A.V.; Abrosimov, N.V.; Riemann, H.
    Spin transport of conduction electrons in silicon samples doped with bismuth in the 1.1•1013 - 7.7•1015 cm-3 concentration range was studied by the Hall effect measurements. The dependence of the Hall voltage magnitude on the magnetic field is the sum of the normal and spin Hall effects. The electrons are partially polarized by an external magnetic field and are scattered by the bismuth spin-orbit potential. Spin-flip scattering results in the additional electromotive force which compensates the normal Hall effect in strong magnetic fields.
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    Axial GaAs/Ga(As, Bi) nanowire heterostructures
    (Bristol : IOP Publ., 2019) Oliva, Miriam; Gao, Guanhui; Luna, Esperanza; Geelhaar, Lutz; Lewis, Ryan B
    Bi-containing III-V semiconductors constitute an exciting class of metastable compounds with wide-ranging potential optoelectronic and electronic applications. However, the growth of III-V-Bi alloys requires group-III-rich growth conditions, which pose severe challenges for planar growth. In this work, we exploit the naturally-Ga-rich environment present inside the metallic droplet of a self-catalyzed GaAs nanowire (NW) to synthesize metastable GaAs/GaAs1-xBi x axial NW heterostructures with high Bi contents. The axial GaAs1-xBi x segments are realized with molecular beam epitaxy by first enriching only the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Ga droplets with Bi, followed by exposing the resulting Ga-Bi droplets to As2 at temperatures ranging from 270 °C to 380 °C to precipitate GaAs1-xBi x only under the NW droplets. Microstructural and elemental characterization reveals the presence of single crystal zincblende GaAs1-xBi x axial NW segments with Bi contents up to (10 ± 2)%. This work illustrates how the unique local growth environment present during the VLS NW growth can be exploited to synthesize heterostructures with metastable compounds. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd.
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    New Source of 3D Chitin Scaffolds: The Red Sea Demosponge Pseudoceratina arabica (Pseudoceratinidae, Verongiida)
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Asfour, Hani Z.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Wysokowski, Marcin; Tsurkan, Mikhail; Galli, Roberta; Meissner, Heike; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Bechmann, Nicole; Muzychka, Lyubov V.; Smolii, Oleg B.; Martinović, Rajko; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann
    The bioactive bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids and unique morphologically-defined fibrous skeleton of chitin origin have been found recently in marine demosponges of the order Verongiida. The sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) structure of skeletal chitinous scaffolds supported their use in biomedicine, tissue engineering as well as in diverse modern technologies. The goal of this study was the screening of new species of the order Verongiida to find another renewable source of naturally prefabricated 3D chitinous scaffolds. Special attention was paid to demosponge species, which could be farmed on large scale using marine aquaculture methods. In this study, the demosponge Pseudoceratina arabica collected in the coastal waters of the Egyptian Red Sea was examined as a potential source of chitin for the first time. Various bioanalytical tools including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, FTIR analysis, Calcofluor white staining, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), as well as a chitinase digestion assay were successfully used to confirm the discovery of a-chitin within the skeleton of P. arabica. The current finding should make an important contribution to the field of application of this verongiid sponge as a novel renewable source of biologically-active metabolites and chitin, which are important for development of the blue biotechnology especially in marine oriented biomedicine. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).