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    Automated and rapid identification of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli against the lead drugs of acylureidopenicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones using specific Raman marker bands
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2020) Götz, Theresa; Dahms, Marcel; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Glaser, Uwe; Bohnert, Jürgen A.; Pletz, Mathias W.; Popp, Jürgen; Schlattmann, Peter; Neugebauer, Ute
    A Raman-based, strain-independent, semi-automated method is presented that allows the rapid (<3 hours) determination of antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical samples. Applying a priori knowledge about the mode of action of the respective antibiotic, we identified characteristic Raman marker bands in the spectrum and calculated batch-wise weighted sum scores from standardized Raman intensity differences between spectra of antibiotic exposed and nonexposed samples of the same strains. The lead substances for three relevant antibiotic classes (fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin, third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime, ureidopenicillin piperacillin) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for the susceptibility testing of two Escherichia coli laboratory strains and 12 clinical isolates. The method benefits from the parallel incubation of control and treated samples, which reduces the variance due to alterations in cultivation conditions and the standardization of differences between batches leading to long-term comparability of Raman measurements. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Highly Conductive, Stretchable, and Cell-Adhesive Hydrogel by Nanoclay Doping
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Tondera, Christoph; Akbar, Teuku Fawzul; Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose; Lin, Weilin; Werner, Carsten; Busskamp, Volker; Zhang, Yixin; Minev, Ivan R.
    Electrically conductive materials that mimic physical and biological properties of tissues are urgently required for seamless brain-machine interfaces. Here, a multinetwork hydrogel combining electrical conductivity of 26 S m-1 , stretchability of 800%, and tissue-like elastic modulus of 15 kPa with mimicry of the extracellular matrix is reported. Engineering this unique set of properties is enabled by a novel in-scaffold polymerization approach. Colloidal hydrogels of the nanoclay Laponite are employed as supports for the assembly of secondary polymer networks. Laponite dramatically increases the conductivity of in-scaffold polymerized poly(ethylene-3,4-diethoxy thiophene) in the absence of other dopants, while preserving excellent stretchability. The scaffold is coated with a layer containing adhesive peptide and polysaccharide dextran sulfate supporting the attachment, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells directly on the surface of conductive hydrogels. Due to its compatibility with simple extrusion printing, this material promises to enable tissue-mimetic neurostimulating electrodes.
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    Magnetization Dynamics of an Individual Single-Crystalline Fe-Filled Carbon Nanotube
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Lenz, Kilian; Narkowicz, Ryszard; Wagner, Kai; Reiche, Christopher F.; Körner, Julia; Schneider, Tobias; Kákay, Attila; Schultheiss, Helmut; Weissker, Uhland; Wolf, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Büchner, Bernd; Fassbender, Jürgen; Mühl, Thomas; Lindner, Jürgen
    The magnetization dynamics of individual Fe-filled multiwall carbon-nanotubes (FeCNT), grown by chemical vapor deposition, are investigated by microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy and corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Currently, only static magnetometry measurements are available. They suggest that the FeCNTs consist of a single-crystalline Fe nanowire throughout the length. The number and structure of the FMR lines and the abrupt decay of the spin-wave transport seen in BLS indicate, however, that the Fe filling is not a single straight piece along the length. Therefore, a stepwise cutting procedure is applied in order to investigate the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance lines as a function of the nanowire length. The results show that the FeCNT is indeed not homogeneous along the full length but is built from 300 to 400 nm long single-crystalline segments. These segments consist of magnetically high quality Fe nanowires with almost the bulk values of Fe and with a similar small damping in relation to thin films, promoting FeCNTs as appealing candidates for spin-wave transport in magnonic applications. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Nonlinear Optical Investigation of Microbial Chromoproteins
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2020) Krekic, Szilvia; Zakar, Tomás; Gombos, Zoltán; Valkai, Sándor; Mero, Mark; Zimányi, László; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Dér, András
    Membrane-bound or cytosolic light-sensitive proteins, playing a crucial role in energy- and signal-transduction processes of various photosynthetic microorganisms, have been optimized for sensing or harvesting light by myriads of years of evolution. Upon absorption of a photon, they undergo a usually cyclic reaction series of conformations, and the accompanying spectro-kinetic events assign robust nonlinear optical (NLO) properties for these chromoproteins. During recent years, they have attracted a considerable interest among researchers of the applied optics community as well, where finding the appropriate NLO material for a particular application is a pivotal task. Potential applications have emerged in various branches of photonics, including optical information storage and processing, higher-harmonic and white-light continuum generation, or biosensorics. In our earlier work, we also raised the possibility of using chromoproteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin (bR), as building blocks for the active elements of integrated optical (IO) circuits, where several organic and inorganic photonic materials have been considered as active components, but so far none of them has been deemed ideal for the purpose. In the current study, we investigate the linear and NLO properties of biofilms made of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) and bR. The kinetics of the photoreactions are monitored by time-resolved absorption experiments, while the refractive index of the films and its light-induced changes are measured using the Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) and Z-scan techniques, respectively. The nonlinear refractive index and the refractive index change of both protein films were determined in the green spectral range in a wide range of intensities and at various laser repetition rates. The nonlinear refractive index and refractive index change of PYP were compared to those of bR, with respect to photonics applications. Our results imply that the NLO properties of these proteins make them promising candidates for utilization in applied photonics, and they should be considered as valid alternatives for active components of IO circuits. © Copyright © 2020 Krekic, Zakar, Gombos, Valkai, Mero, Zimányi, Heiner and Dér.
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    Heteroepitaxial growth of T-Nb2O5 on SrTiO3
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018) Boschker, Jos E.; Markurt, Toni; Albrecht, Martin; Schwarzkopf, Jutta
    There is a growing interest in exploiting the functional properties of niobium oxides in general and of the T-Nb2O5 polymorph in particular. Fundamental investigations of the properties of niobium oxides are, however, hindered by the availability of materials with sufficient structural perfection. It is expected that high-quality T-Nb2O5 can be made using heteroepitaxial growth. Here, we investigated the epitaxial growth of T-Nb2O5 on a prototype perovskite oxide, SrTiO3. Even though there exists a reasonable lattice mismatch in one crystallographic direction, these materials have a significant difference in crystal structure: SrTiO3 is cubic, whereas T-Nb2O5 is orthorhombic. It is found that this difference in symmetry results in the formation of domains that have the T-Nb2O5 c-axis aligned with the SrTiO3 <001>s in-plane directions. Hence, the number of domain orientations is four and two for the growth on (100)s- and (110)s-oriented substrates, respectively. Interestingly, the out-of-plane growth direction remains the same for both substrate orientations, suggesting a weak interfacial coupling between the two materials. Despite challenges associated with the heteroepitaxial growth of T-Nb2O5, the T-Nb2O5 films presented in this paper are a significant improvement in terms of structural quality compared to their polycrystalline counterparts.
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    Bioinspired pressure actuated adhesive system
    (Saarbrücken : Leibniz-Institut für Neue Materialien, 2011) Paretkar, Dadhichi R.; Kamperman, Marleen; Schneider, Andreas S.; Arzt, Eduard
    We developed a dry snythetic adhesive system inspired by gecko feet that can switch reversibly from adhesion to non-adhesion with applied pressure as external stimulus. Micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars of 30 µm length and 10 µm diameter were fabricated using photolithography and moulding. Adhesion properties were determined with a flat probe as a function of preload. For low and moderate applied compressive preloads, measured adhesion was 7.5 times higher on the patterned surfaces than on flat controls whereas for high preloads adhesion dropped to very low values. In situ imaging showed that the increased preload caused the pillars to deform by bending and/or buckling and to lose their adhesive contact. The elasticity of PDMS aids the pillar recovery to the upright position upon removal of preload enabling repeatability of the switch. Such systems have promising properties e.g. for industrial pick-and-carry operations.
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    Thermal Impact on the Culturable Microbial Diversity Along the Processing Chain of Flour From Crickets (Acheta domesticus)
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2020) Fröhling, Antje; Bußler, Sara; Durek, Julia; Schlüter, Oliver K.
    The role of insects for human consumption has lately increased in interest and in order to deliver safe and high-quality raw materials and ingredients for food and feed applications, processing of insects is a major pre-requisite. For edible insects a thermal treatment and appropriate storage conditions are recommended to minimize the microbiological risk and the impact of processing methods on the microbial contamination needs to be considered and determined. Based on standard process conditions for the production of Acheta domesticus flour, different heating treatments were used to reduce the microbial load of A. domesticus. In addition, the drying temperature and drying time were varied to determine whether the required residual moisture of <5% can be achieved more quickly with consistent microbial quality. The influence of the process conditions on the microbial community of A. domesticus along the processing chain was finally investigated under optimized process conditions. The total viable count was reduced from 9.24 log10 CFU/gDM to 1.98 log10 CFU/gDM along the entire processing chain. While Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and yeast and molds were no longer detectable in the A. domesticus flour, Staphylococcaceae and mesophilic spore forming bacteria were still found in the flour. The results indicate that the steaming process is essential for effectively increasing microbial safety since this processing step showed the highest inactivation. It is recommended to not only evaluate the total viable count but also to monitor changes in microbial diversity during processing to ensure microbial safety of the final product. © Copyright © 2020 Fröhling, Bußler, Durek and Schlüter.
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    Preparation of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes via Radiation-Induced Graft Copolymerization on Poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) Using the Crosslinker N,N′-Methylenebis(acrylamide)
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018) Ke, Xi; Drache, Marco; Gohs, Uwe; Kunz, Ulrich; Beuermann, Sabine
    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization are investigated. For this purpose, commercial poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films were activated by electron beam treatment and subsequently grafted with the monomers glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and N,N′-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAA) as crosslinker. The target is to achieve a high degree of grafting (DG) and high proton conductivity. To evaluate the electrochemical performance, the PEMs were tested in a fuel cell and in a vanadium redox-flow battery (VRFB). High power densities of 134 mW∙cm−2 and 474 mW∙cm−2 were observed, respectively.
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    A size dependent evaluation of the cytotoxicity and uptake of nanographene oxide
    (London [u.a.] : RSC, 2015) Mendes, Rafael Gregorio; Koch, Britta; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Ma, Xing; Sanchez, Samuel; Damm, Christine; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Gemming, Thomas; Eckert, Jürgen; Rümmeli, Mark H.
    Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted great interest due to its extraordinary potential for biomedical application. Although it is clear that the naturally occurring morphology of biological structures is crucial to their precise interactions and correct functioning, the geometrical aspects of nanoparticles are often ignored in the design of nanoparticles for biological applications. A few in vitro and in vivo studies have evaluated the cytotoxicity and biodistribution of GO, however very little is known about the influence of flake size and cytotoxicity. Herein, we aim at presenting an initial cytotoxicity evaluation of different nano-sized GO flakes for two different cell lines (HeLa (Kyoto) and macrophage (J7742)) when they are exposed to samples containing different sized nanographene oxide (NGO) flakes (mean diameter of 89 and 277 nm). The obtained data suggests that the larger NGO flakes reduce cell viability as compared to smaller flakes. In addition, the viability reduction correlates with the time and the concentration of the NGO nanoparticles to which the cells are exposed. Uptake studies were also conducted and the data suggests that both cell lines internalize the GO nanoparticles during the incubation periods studied.
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    Photo-Ordering and Deformation in Azobenzene-Containing Polymer Networks under Irradiation with Elliptically Polarized Light
    (Basel : MDPI, 2023) Toshchevikov, Vladimir; Saphiannikova, Marina
    Azobenzene-containing polymers (azo-polymers) have been a subject of extensive investigations during the last two and half decades, due to their remarkable ability to undergo pronounced alignment and deformation under irradiation with light. The molecular ordering and deformation in azo-polymers of various structures under irradiation with linearly polarized light was described in a series of theoretical works, based on the effect of the reorientation of azobenzene moieties due to the anisotropic character of the photoisomerization processes. In the present study, we generalize the previous orientation approach to describe the photo-alignment and deformation of azo-polymer networks under irradiation with elliptically polarized light. We demonstrate that, in general, the light-induced ordering and deformation have a biaxial symmetry defined by the polarization ellipse. Azobenzene chromophores have a tendency to align along the direction of light propagation, the orientation in the other two directions being dependent of the aspect ratio of the polarization ellipse. This causes deformation of azo-polymer networks along the direction of light propagation, the sign of which (expansion/contraction) is defined by a chemical structure of network strands. Theoretical results are in agreement with experiments and have a practical importance to predict the photo-mechanical response of azo-polymers depending on their structure and on the polarization of light.