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Now showing 1 - 10 of 556
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    Guidance of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin structured hydrogel films
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2014) Kasten, Annika; Naser, Tamara; Brüllhoff, Kristina; Fiedler, Jörg; Müller, Petra; Möller, Martin; Rychly, Joachim; Groll, Jürgen; Brenner, Rolf E.; Engler, Adam J.
    Designing of implant surfaces using a suitable ligand for cell adhesion to stimulate specific biological responses of stem cells will boost the application of regenerative implants. For example, materials that facilitate rapid and guided migration of stem cells would promote tissue regeneration. When seeded on fibronectin (FN) that was homogeneously immmobilized to NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), which otherwise prevents protein binding and cell adhesion, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) revealed a faster migration, increased spreading and a more rapid organization of different cellular components for cell adhesion on fibronectin than on a glass surface. To further explore, how a structural organization of FN controls the behavior of MSC, adhesive lines of FN with varying width between 10 µm and 80 µm and spacings between 5 µm and 20 µm that did not allow cell adhesion were generated. In dependance on both line width and gaps, cells formed adjacent cell contacts, were individually organized in lines, or bridged the lines. With decreasing sizes of FN lines, speed and directionality of cell migration increased, which correlated with organization of the actin cytoskeleton, size and shape of the nuclei as well as of focal adhesions. Together, defined FN lines and gaps enabled a fine tuning of the structural organization of cellular components and migration. Microstructured adhesive substrates can mimic the extracellular matrix in vivo and stimulate cellular mechanisms which play a role in tissue regeneration.
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    New Source of 3D Chitin Scaffolds: The Red Sea Demosponge Pseudoceratina arabica (Pseudoceratinidae, Verongiida)
    (Basel : MDPI, 2019) Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Asfour, Hani Z.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Wysokowski, Marcin; Tsurkan, Mikhail; Galli, Roberta; Meissner, Heike; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Bechmann, Nicole; Muzychka, Lyubov V.; Smolii, Oleg B.; Martinović, Rajko; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann
    The bioactive bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids and unique morphologically-defined fibrous skeleton of chitin origin have been found recently in marine demosponges of the order Verongiida. The sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) structure of skeletal chitinous scaffolds supported their use in biomedicine, tissue engineering as well as in diverse modern technologies. The goal of this study was the screening of new species of the order Verongiida to find another renewable source of naturally prefabricated 3D chitinous scaffolds. Special attention was paid to demosponge species, which could be farmed on large scale using marine aquaculture methods. In this study, the demosponge Pseudoceratina arabica collected in the coastal waters of the Egyptian Red Sea was examined as a potential source of chitin for the first time. Various bioanalytical tools including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, FTIR analysis, Calcofluor white staining, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), as well as a chitinase digestion assay were successfully used to confirm the discovery of a-chitin within the skeleton of P. arabica. The current finding should make an important contribution to the field of application of this verongiid sponge as a novel renewable source of biologically-active metabolites and chitin, which are important for development of the blue biotechnology especially in marine oriented biomedicine. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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    Laboratory-Developed Tests: Design of a Regulatory Strategy in Compliance with the International State-of-the-Art and the Regulation (EU) 2017/746 (EU IVDR [In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device Regulation])
    ([New York] : Springer Nature, 2022) Spitzenberger, Folker; Patel, Jaimin; Gebuhr, Inga; Kruttwig, Klaus; Safi, Abdulrahim; Meisel, Christian
    Purpose: This study aimed at the development of a regulatory strategy for compliance of laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) with requirements of the Regulation (EU) 2017/746 (“EU-IVDR”) under consideration of international requirements for LDTs as established in major regulatory regions. Furthermore, it was analysed in how far elements of current LDT regulation could qualify for an internationally harmonised concept ensuring quality, safety and performance of LDTs. Methods: A review of regulatory literature including legislation as well as guidance documents was performed. The regulatory strategy was adapted from international guidance concepts used for commercially marketed IVD. It was then applied to the example of a large medical laboratory in the EU. A high-level comparison was conducted to identify gaps and matches between the different international regulatory requirements for LDTs. Results: A four-step strategy for compliance of LDTs with the EU IVDR was implemented in an exemplary medical laboratory. On the basis of an internationally used LDT definition, LDTs constitute nearly 50% of the total IVD devices used in the laboratory. While an ISO 15189-compliant QMS is a major component, it should be accompanied by the application of appropriate processes for risk management, performance evaluation and continuous monitoring of LDTs. At least six criteria represent common characteristics of a potential, internationally convergent concept for the regulation/standardization of LDTs. Conclusions: This study confirms the impact of LDTs for individualized and innovative medical laboratory testing. Prerequisites for LDT use as especially given by the IVDR and missing interpretation in the EU with regard to the scope of LDT definition, the application of standards and the extent of documentation for LDTs currently lead to uncertainties for both laboratories and regulatory bodies responsible for LDT oversight. The characteristics identified as common criteria for ensuring quality, safety and performance of LDTs may be considered as central elements of future international consensus guidance. © 2021, The Author(s).
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    Nonspherical Nanoparticle Shape Stability Is Affected by Complex Manufacturing Aspects: Its Implications for Drug Delivery and Targeting
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Haryadi, Bernard Manuel; Hafner, Daniel; Amin, Ihsan; Schubel, Rene; Jordan, Rainer; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia
    The shape of nanoparticles is known recently as an important design parameter influencing considerably the fate of nanoparticles with and in biological systems. Several manufacturing techniques to generate nonspherical nanoparticles as well as studies on in vitro and in vivo effects thereof have been described. However, nonspherical nanoparticle shape stability in physiological-related conditions and the impact of formulation parameters on nonspherical nanoparticle resistance still need to be investigated. To address these issues, different nanoparticle fabrication methods using biodegradable polymers are explored to produce nonspherical nanoparticles via the prevailing film-stretching method. In addition, systematic comparisons to other nanoparticle systems prepared by different manufacturing techniques and less biodegradable materials (but still commonly utilized for drug delivery and targeting) are conducted. The study evinces that the strong interplay from multiple nanoparticle properties (i.e., internal structure, Young's modulus, surface roughness, liquefaction temperature [glass transition (Tg) or melting (Tm)], porosity, and surface hydrophobicity) is present. It is not possible to predict the nonsphericity longevity by merely one or two factor(s). The most influential features in preserving the nonsphericity of nanoparticles are existence of internal structure and low surface hydrophobicity (i.e., surface-free energy (SFE) > ≈55 mN m−1, material–water interfacial tension <6 mN m−1), especially if the nanoparticles are soft (<1 GPa), rough (Rrms > 10 nm), porous (>1 m2 g−1), and in possession of low bulk liquefaction temperature (<100 °C). Interestingly, low surface hydrophobicity of nanoparticles can be obtained indirectly by the significant presence of residual stabilizers. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that nonsphericity of particle systems is highly dependent on surface chemistry but cannot be appraised separately from other factors. These results and reviews allot valuable guidelines for the design and manufacturing of nonspherical nanoparticles having adequate shape stability, thereby appropriate with their usage purposes. Furthermore, they can assist in understanding and explaining the possible mechanisms of nonspherical nanoparticles effectivity loss and distinctive material behavior at the nanoscale. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Monoclonal Antibodies 13A4 and AC133 Do Not Recognize the Canine Ortholog of Mouse and Human Stem Cell Antigen Prominin-1 (CD133)
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2016) Thamm, Kristina; Graupner, Sylvi; Werner, Carsten; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis; Nabi, Ivan R
    The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133) is widely used in medicine as a cell surface marker of stem and cancer stem cells. It has opened new avenues in stem cell-based regenerative therapy and oncology. This molecule is largely used with human samples or the mouse model, and consequently most biological tools including antibodies are directed against human and murine prominin-1. Although the general structure of prominin-1 including its membrane topology is conserved throughout the animal kingdom, its primary sequence is poorly conserved. Thus, it is unclear if anti-human and -mouse prominin-1 antibodies cross-react with their orthologs in other species, especially dog. Answering this issue is imperative in light of the growing number of studies using canine prominin-1 as an antigenic marker. Here, we address this issue by cloning the canine prominin-1 and use its overexpression as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine its immunoreactivity with antibodies against human or mouse prominin-1. We used immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting techniques and surprisingly found no cross-species immunoreactivity. These results raise some caution in data interpretation when anti-prominin-1 antibodies are used in interspecies studies.
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    Ocean warming and acidification may drag down the commercial Arctic cod fishery by 2100
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2020) Hänsel, Martin C.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Stiasny, Martina H.; Stöven, Max T.; Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.
    The Arctic Ocean is an early warning system for indicators and effects of climate change. We use a novel combination of experimental and time-series data on effects of ocean warming and acidification on the commercially important Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) to incorporate these physiological processes into the recruitment model of the fish population. By running an ecological-economic optimization model, we investigate how the interaction of ocean warming, acidification and fishing pressure affects the sustainability of the fishery in terms of ecological, economic, social and consumer-related indicators, ranging from present day conditions up to future climate change scenarios. We find that near-term climate change will benefit the fishery, but under likely future warming and acidification this large fishery is at risk of collapse by the end of the century, even with the best adaptation effort in terms of reduced fishing pressure.
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    Characterisation of a novel composite SCCmec-SCCfus element in an emerging Staphylococcus aureus strain from the Arabian Gulf region
    (San Francisco : Public Library of Science, 2019) Senok, Abiola; Slickers, Peter; Hotzel, Helmut; Boswihi, Samar; Braun, Sascha D.; Gawlik, Darius; Müller, Elke; Nabi, Anju; Nassar, Rania; Nitschke, Hedda; Reißig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Mafofo, Joseph; Somili, Ali M.; Udo, Edet; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan
    Fusidic acid is a steroid antibiotic known since the 1960s. It is frequently used in topical preparations, i.e., ointments, for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. There is an increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains that harbour plasmid-borne fusB/far1 or fusC that is localised on SCC elements. In this study we examined a series of related CC30-MRSA isolates from the Arabian Gulf countries that presented with SCCmec elements and fusC, including a variant that—to the best of our knowledge—has not yet formally been described. It consisted of a class B mec complex and ccrA/B-4 genes. The fusidic acid resistance gene fusC was present, but contrary to the previously sequenced element of HDE288, it was not accompanied by tirS. This element was identified in CC30 MRSA from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates that usually also harbour the Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes. It was also identified in CC8 and ST834 isolates. In addition, further CC30 MRSA strains with other SCCmec VI elements harbouring fusC were found to circulate in the Arabian Gulf region. It can be assumed that MRSA strains with SCCmec elements that include fusC have a selective advantage in both hospital and community settings warranting a review of the use of topical antibiotics and indicating the necessity of reducing over-the-counter sale of antibiotics, including fusidic acid, without prescription.Fusidic acid is a steroid antibiotic known since the 1960s. It is frequently used in topical preparations, i.e., ointments, for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. There is an increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains that harbour plasmid-borne fusB/far1 or fusC that is localised on SCC elements. In this study we examined a series of related CC30-MRSA isolates from the Arabian Gulf countries that presented with SCCmec elements and fusC, including a variant that—to the best of our knowledge—has not yet formally been described. It consisted of a class B mec complex and ccrA/B-4 genes. The fusidic acid resistance gene fusC was present, but contrary to the previously sequenced element of HDE288, it was not accompanied by tirS. This element was identified in CC30 MRSA from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates that usually also harbour the Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes. It was also identified in CC8 and ST834 isolates. In addition, further CC30 MRSA strains with other SCCmec VI elements harbouring fusC were found to circulate in the Arabian Gulf region. It can be assumed that MRSA strains with SCCmec elements that include fusC have a selective advantage in both hospital and community settings warranting a review of the use of topical antibiotics and indicating the necessity of reducing over-the-counter sale of antibiotics, including fusidic acid, without prescription.
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    First Report on Chitin in a Non-Verongiid Marine Demosponge: The Mycale euplectellioides Case
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018) Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; Elhady, Sameh S.; Tsurkan, Mikhail V.; Petrenko, Iaroslav; Wysokowski, Marcin; Tabachnick, Konstantin; Meissner, Heike; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Bechmann, Nicole; Joseph, Yvonne; Jesionowski, Teofil; Ehrlich, Hermann
    Sponges (Porifera) are recognized as aquatic multicellular organisms which developed an effective biochemical pathway over millions of years of evolution to produce both biologically active secondary metabolites and biopolymer-based skeletal structures. Among marine demosponges, only representatives of the Verongiida order are known to synthetize biologically active substances as well as skeletons made of structural polysaccharide chitin. The unique three-dimensional (3D) architecture of such chitinous skeletons opens the widow for their recent applications as adsorbents, as well as scaffolds for tissue engineering and biomimetics. This study has the ambitious goal of monitoring other orders beyond Verongiida demosponges and finding alternative sources of naturally prestructured chitinous scaffolds; especially in those demosponge species which can be cultivated at large scales using marine farming conditions. Special attention has been paid to the demosponge Mycale euplectellioides (Heteroscleromorpha: Poecilosclerida: Mycalidae) collected in the Red Sea. For the first time, we present here a detailed study of the isolation of chitin from the skeleton of this sponge, as well as its identification using diverse bioanalytical tools. Calcofluor white staining, Fourier-transform Infrared Spcetcroscopy (FTIR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy, as well as a chitinase digestion assay were applied in order to confirm with strong evidence the finding of a-chitin in the skeleton of M. euplectellioides. We suggest that the discovery of chitin within representatives of the Mycale genus is a promising step in their evaluation of these globally distributed sponges as new renewable sources for both biologically active metabolites and chitin, which are of prospective use for pharmacology and biomaterials oriented biomedicine, respectively.
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    The Biomedical Use of Silk: Past, Present, Future
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Holland, Chris; Numata, Keiji; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Seib, F. Philipp
    Humans have long appreciated silk for its lustrous appeal and remarkable physical properties, yet as the mysteries of silk are unraveled, it becomes clear that this outstanding biopolymer is more than a high-tech fiber. This progress report provides a critical but detailed insight into the biomedical use of silk. This journey begins with a historical perspective of silk and its uses, including the long-standing desire to reverse engineer silk. Selected silk structure–function relationships are then examined to appreciate past and current silk challenges. From this, biocompatibility and biodegradation are reviewed with a specific focus of silk performance in humans. The current clinical uses of silk (e.g., sutures, surgical meshes, and fabrics) are discussed, as well as clinical trials (e.g., wound healing, tissue engineering) and emerging biomedical applications of silk across selected formats, such as silk solution, films, scaffolds, electrospun materials, hydrogels, and particles. The journey finishes with a look at the roadmap of next-generation recombinant silks, especially the development pipeline of this new industry for clinical use. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Preventing carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation reduces antigen-specific sensitization and subsequent allergic reactions in a mouse model
    (London : BioMed Central, 2015) Kroker, Matthias; Sydlik, Ulrich; Autengruber, Andrea; Cavelius, Christian; Weighardt, Heike; Kraegeloh, Annette; Unfried, Klaus
    Background Exposure of the airways to carbonaceous nanoparticles can contribute to the development of immune diseases both via the aggravation of the allergic immune response in sensitized individuals and by adjuvant mechanisms during the sensitization against allergens. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in these adverse pathways are not completely understood. We recently described that the reduction of carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation by the application of the compatible solute ectoine reduced the aggravation of the allergic response in an animal system. In the current study we investigated the influence of carbon nanoparticles on the sensitization of animals to ovalbumin via the airways. Ectoine was used as a preventive strategy against nanoparticle-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation. Methods Balb/c mice were repetitively exposed to the antigen ovalbumin after induction of airway inflammation by carbon nanoparticles, either in the presence or in the absence of ectoine. Allergic sensitization was monitored by measurement of immunoglobulin levels and immune responses in lung and lung draining lymph nodes after challenge. Furthermore the role of dendritic cells in the effect of carbon nanoparticles was studied in vivo in the lymph nodes but also in vitro using bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Results Animals exposed to antigen in the presence of carbon nanoparticles showed increased effects with respect to ovalbumin sensitization, to the allergic airway inflammation after challenge, and to the specific TH2 response in the lymph nodes. The presence of ectoine during the sensitization significantly reduced these parameters. The number of antigen-loaded dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes was identified as a possible cause for the adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. In vitro assays indicate that the direct interaction of the particles with dendritic cells is not able to trigger CCR7 expression, while this endpoint is achieved by lung lavage fluid from nanoparticle-exposed animals. Conclusions Using the intervention strategy of applying ectoine into the airways of animals we were able to demonstrate the relevance of neutrophilic lung inflammation for the adjuvant effect of carbon nanoparticles on allergic sensitization.n.