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    Spontaneous fluctuations in a plasma ion assisted deposition – correlation between deposition conditions and vanadium oxide thin film growth
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Frank, Anna; Dias, Miguel; Hieke, Stefan; Kruth, Angela; Scheu, Christina
    In this work correlations between thin film crystallinity of plasma ion assisted electron beam evaporated vanadium oxide (VOx) and fluctuations of the deposition parameters during the growth process could be observed by in situ monitoring deposition conditions and electron microscopy studies. In the presented case, unintentional fluctuations in the gas flow at the plasma source caused by inhomogeneous melting of the target material lead to an increase in discharge current and therefore a decrease of the oxygen flow in the plasma source, resulting in the formation of highly crystalline bands due to a temporary increase in energy flux. The major part of the VOx thin film consists of a large number of nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous phase. In-depth structural analysis confirms a mixture of V2O5, in different modifications, VO2, as well as the mixed-valence oxides V4O9 and V6O13, for nanocrystalline parts and crystalline bands. These differ mainly in the degree of crystallinity being influenced by variations in discharge current, and partly in the amount of higher oxidized vanadium oxides. In future, precisely controlled variation of plasma source conditions will open up pathways to control and tailor crystallinity of electron beam evaporated thin films, allowing for production methods for patterned thin films or layers with graduated crystallinity. This may give rise to a new class of coatings of nanohybrids combining amorphous VOx with low electrical conductivity and crystalline domains providing a higher electrical conductivity which is useful for electrochromic displays, smart windows, and solar cells.
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    On Tetrahedralisations Containing Knotted and Linked Line Segments
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Si, Hang; Ren, Yuxue; Lei, Na; Gu, Xianfeng
    This paper considers a set of twisted line segments in 3d such that they form a knot (a closed curve) or a link of two closed curves. Such line segments appear on the boundary of a family of 3d indecomposable polyhedra (like the Schönhardt polyhedron) whose interior cannot be tetrahedralised without additional vertices added. On the other hand, a 3d (non-convex) polyhedron whose boundary contains such line segments may still be decomposable as long as the twist is not too large. It is therefore interesting to consider the question: when there exists a tetrahedralisation contains a given set of knotted or linked line segments? In this paper, we studied a simplified question with the assumption that all vertices of the line segments are in convex position. It is straightforward to show that no tetrahedralisation of 6 vertices (the three-line-segments case) can contain a trefoil knot. Things become interesting when the number of line segments increases. Since it is necessary to create new interior edges to form a tetrahedralisation. We provided a detailed analysis for the case of a set of 4 line segments. This leads to a crucial condition on the orientation of pairs of new interior edges which determines whether this set is decomposable or not. We then prove a new theorem about the decomposability for a set of n (n ≥ 3) knotted or linked line segments. This theorem implies that the family of polyhedra generalised from the Schonhardt polyhedron by Rambau [1] are all indecomposable.
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    Effectiveness of myAirCoach: A mHealth Self-Management System in Asthma
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Khusial, Rishi J.; Honkoop, Persijn J.; Usmani, Omar; Soares, Marcia; Simpson, Andrew; Biddiscombe, Martyn; Meah, Sally; Bonini, Matteo; Lalas, Antonios; Polychronidou, Eleftheria; Koopmans, Julia G.; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B.; Ortmann, Steffen; Votis, Konstantinos; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Chung, Kian Fan; Fowler, Stephen; Sont, Jacob K.
    Background: Self-management programs have beneficial effects on asthma control, but their implementation in clinical practice is poor. Mobile health (mHealth) could play an important role in enhancing self-management. Objective: To assess the clinical effectiveness and technology acceptance of myAirCoach-supported self-management on top of usual care in patients with asthma using inhalation medication. Methods: Patients were recruited in 2 separate studies. The myAirCoach system consisted of an inhaler adapter, an indoor air-quality monitor, a physical activity tracker, a portable spirometer, a fraction exhaled nitric oxide device, and an app. The primary outcome was asthma control; secondary outcomes were exacerbations, quality of life, and technology acceptance. In study 1, 30 participants were randomized to either usual care or myAirCoach support for 3 to 6 months; in study 2, 12 participants were provided with the myAirCoach system in a 3-month before-after study. Results: In study 1, asthma control improved in the intervention group compared with controls (Asthma Control Questionnaire difference, 0.70; P = .006). A total of 6 exacerbations occurred in the intervention group compared with 12 in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.31; P = .06). Asthma-related quality of life improved (mini Asthma-related Quality of Life Questionnaire difference, 0.53; P = .04), but forced expiratory volume in 1 second was unchanged. In study 2, asthma control improved by 0.86 compared with baseline (P = .007) and quality of life by 0.16 (P = .64). Participants reported positive attitudes toward the system. Discussion: Using the myAirCoach support system improves asthma control and quality of life, with a reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. Well-validated mHealth technologies should therefore be further studied. © 2020 The Authors
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    Seismic interpretation and structural restoration of the Heligoland glaciotectonic thrust-fault complex: Implications for multiple deformation during (pre-)Elsterian to Warthian ice advances into the southern North Sea Basin
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Winsemann, Jutta; Koopmann, Hannes; Tanner, David C.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Lang, Jörg; Brandes, Christian; Gaedicke, Christoph
    Despite a long history of research, the locations of former ice-margins in the North Sea Basin are still uncertain. In this study, we present new palaeogeographic reconstructions of (pre-) Elsterian and Warthian ice-margins in the southeastern North Sea Basin, which were previously unknown. The reconstructions are based on the integration of palaeo-ice flow data derived from glaciotectonic thrusts, tunnel valleys and mega-scale glacial lineations. We focus on a huge glaciotectonic thrust complex located about 10 km north of Heligoland and 50 km west of the North Frisian coast of Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany). Multi-channel high-resolution 2D seismic reflection data show a thrust-fault complex in the upper 300 ms TWT (ca. 240 m) of seismic data. This thrust-fault complex consists of mainly Neogene delta sediments, covers an area of 350 km2, and forms part of a large belt of glaciotectonic complexes that stretches from offshore Denmark via northern Germany to Poland. The deformation front of the Heligoland glaciotectonic complex trends approximately NNE-SSW. The total length of the glaciotectonic thrust complex is approximately 15 km. The thrust faults share a common detachment surface, located at a depth of 250–300 ms (TWT) (200–240 m) below sea level. The detachment surface most probably formed at a pronounced rheological boundary between Upper Miocene fine-grained pro-delta deposits and coarser-grained delta-front deposits, although we cannot rule out that deep permafrost in the glacier foreland played a role for the location of this detachment surface. Restored cross-sections reveal the shortening of the complex along the detachment to have been on average 23% (ranging from ca. 16%–50%). The determined ice movement direction from east-southeast to southeast suggests deformation by an ice advance from the Baltic region. The chronospatial relationship of the thrust-fault complex and adjacent northwest-southeast to northeast-southwest trending Elsterian tunnel valleys implies a pre-Elsterian (MIS 16?) age of the glaciotectonic complex. However, the age of these Elsterian tunnel valleys is poorly constrained and the glaciotectonic complex of Heligoland may also have been formed during an early Elsterian ice advance into the southeastern North Sea Basin. The glaciotectonic complex underwent further shortening and the Elsterian tunnel-valley fills that were incised into the glaciotectonic complex were partly deformed during the Saalian Drenthe and Warthe (1) ice advances.
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    Self-organized formation of unidirectional and quasi-one-dimensional metallic Tb silicide nanowires on Si(110)
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2022) Appelfeller, Stephan; Franz, Martin; Karadag, Murat; Kubicki, Milan; Zielinski, Robert; Krivenkov, Maxim; Varykhalov, Andrei; Preobrajenski, Alexei; Dähne, Mario
    Terbium induced nanostructures on Si(110) and their growth are thoroughly characterized by low energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, core-level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. For low Tb coverage, a wetting layer forms with its surface fraction continuously decreasing with increasing Tb coverage in favor of the formation of unidirectional Tb silicide nanowires. These nanowires show high aspect ratios for high annealing temperatures or on substrates already containing Tb in the bulk. Both wetting layer and nanowires are stable for temperatures up to 750°C. In contrast to the nanowires, the wetting layer is characterized by a band gap. Thus, the metallic nanowires, which show a quasi-one-dimensional electronic band structure, are embedded in a semiconducting surrounding of wetting layer and substrate, insulating the nanowires from each other.
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    The impact of land-use/land cover changes on water balance of the heterogeneous Buzi sub-catchment, Zimbabwe
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Chemura, Abel; Rwasoka, Donald; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy; Mushore, Terence
    The nature of interactions between ecological, physical and hydrological characteristics that determine the effects of land cover change on surface and sub-surface hydrology is not well understood in both natural and disturbed environments. The spatiotemporal dynamics of water fluxes and their relationship with land cover changes between 2009 and 2017 in the headwater Buzi sub-catchment in Zimbabwe is evaluated. To achieve this, land cover dynamics for the area under study were characterised from the 30 m Landsat data, using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm. After the land cover classification, the key water balance components namely; interception, transpiration and evapotranspiration (ET) contributions for each class in 2009 and 2017 were estimated. Image classification of Landsat data achieved good overall accuracies above 80% for the two periods. Results showed that the percentage of the plantation land cover types decreased slightly between 2009 (25.4%) and 2017 (22.5%). Partitioning the annual interception, transpiration and ET according to land cover classes showed that the highest amounts of ET in the basin were from plantation where land cover types with tea had the highest interception, transpiration and ET in the catchment. Higher ET, interception and transpiration were observed in the eastern parts of the catchment. At catchment level, results show that 2017 had a higher water balance than 2009, which was partly explained by the decrease in plantation cover type.
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    The impact of climate conditions on economic production. Evidence from a global panel of regions
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Kalkuhl, Matthias; Wenz, Leonie
    We present a novel data set of subnational economic output, Gross Regional Product (GRP), for more than 1500 regions in 77 countries that allows us to empirically estimate historic climate impacts at different time scales. Employing annual panel models, long-difference regressions and cross-sectional regressions, we identify effects on productivity levels and productivity growth. We do not find evidence for permanent growth rate impacts but we find robust evidence that temperature affects productivity levels considerably. An increase in global mean surface temperature by about 3.5°C until the end of the century would reduce global output by 7–14% in 2100, with even higher damages in tropical and poor regions. Updating the DICE damage function with our estimates suggests that the social cost of carbon from temperature-induced productivity losses is on the order of 73–142$/tCO2 in 2020, rising to 92–181$/tCO2 in 2030. These numbers exclude non-market damages and damages from extreme weather events or sea-level rise. © 2020 The Authors
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    Cold physical plasma-induced oxidation of cysteine yields reactive sulfur species (RSS)
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2019) Bruno, Giuliana; Heusler, Thea; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Woedtke, Thomas von; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Wende, Kristian
    Purpose: Studying plasma liquid chemistry can reveal insights into their biomedical effects, i.e. to understand the direct and indirect processes triggered by the treatment in a model or clinical application. Due to the reactivity of the sulfur atom, thiols are potential targets for plasma- derived reactive species. Being crucial for protein function and redox signaling pathways, their controllable modification would allow expanding the application range. Additionally, models to control and standardize CAP sources are desired tools for plasma source design. Methods: Cysteine, a ubiquitous amino acid, was used as a tracer compound to scavenge the reactive species produced by an argon plasma jet (kINPen). The resulting product pattern was identified via high-resolution mass spectrometry. The Ellman´s assay was used to screen CAP derived thiol consumption, and long-lived species deposition (hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, nitrate) was monitored in relation to the presence of cysteine. Results: The intensity of cysteine oxidation increased with treatment time and availability of oxygen in the feed gas. A range of products from cysteine was identified, in part indicative for certain treatment conditions. Several non-stable products occur transiently during the plasma treatment. Bioactive reactive sulfur species (RSS) have been found for mild treatment conditions, such as cysteine sulfoxides and cysteine-S-sulfonate. Considering the number of cysteine molecules in the boundary layer and the achieved oxidation state, short-lived species dominate in cysteine conversion. In addition, a boundary layer depletion of the tracer was observed. Conclusion: Translating these data into the in-vivo application, strong direct oxidation of protein thiol groups with subsequent changes in protein biochemistry must be considered. Plasma-derived RSS may in part contribute to the observed biomedical effects of CAP. Care must be taken to control the discharge parameter tightly as chemical dynamics at or in the liquid are subject to change easily. © 2019
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    Scattering matrices and Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Behrndt, Jussi; Malamud, Mark M.; Neidhardt, Hagen
    A general representation formula for the scattering matrix of a scattering system consisting of two self-adjoint operators in terms of an abstract operator valued Titchmarsh–Weyl m-function is proved. This result is applied to scattering problems for different self-adjoint realizations of Schrödinger operators on unbounded domains, Schrödinger operators with singular potentials supported on hypersurfaces, and orthogonal couplings of Schrödinger operators. In these applications the scattering matrix is expressed in an explicit form with the help of Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps.
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    OSL-dating of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition in loess from China, Europe and North America, and evidence for accretionary pedogenesis
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Constantin, D.; Mason, J.A.; Veres, D.; Hambach, U.; Panaiotu, C.; Zeeden, C.; Zhou, L.; Marković, S.B.; Gerasimenko, N.; Avram, A.; Tecsa, V.; Groza-Sacaciu, S.M.; del Valle Villalonga, L.; Begy, R.; Timar-Gabor, A.
    Loess deposits intercalated by paleosols are detailed terrestrial archives of Quaternary climate variability providing information on the global dust cycle and landscape dynamics. Their paleoclimatic significance is often explored by quantifying their mineral magnetic properties due to their sensitivity to local/regional hydroclimate variability. Detailed chronological assessment of such regional proxy records around the climatic transitions allow a better understanding of how regional records react to major global climatic transitions such as the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition. Logs of high-resolution magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence were used as paleoclimatic proxies to define the environmental transition from the last glacial loess to the current interglacial soil as reflected in nine loess-paleosol sequences across the northern hemisphere, from the Chinese Loess Plateau, the southeastern European loess belt and the central Great Plains, USA. The onset of increase in magnetic susceptibility above typical loess values was used to assess the onset of, and developments during, the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition. High-resolution luminescence dating was applied on multiple grain-sizes (4–11 μm, 63–90 μm, 90–125 μm) of quartz extracts from the same sample in order to investigate the timing of Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition in the investigated sites. The magnetic susceptibility signal shows a smooth and gradual increase for the majority of the sites from the typical low loess values to the interglacial ones. The initiation of this increase, interpreted as recording the initiation of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition at each site, was dated to 14–17.5 ka or even earlier. Our chronological results highlight the need of combining paleoclimatic proxies (magnetic susceptibility) with absolute dating when investigating the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition as reflected by the evolution of this proxy in order to avoid chronostratigraphic misinterpretations in loess-paleosol records caused by simple pattern correlation. The detailed luminescence chronologies evidence the continuity of eolian mineral dust accumulation regardless of glacial or interglacial global climatic regimes. Coupled with magnetic susceptibility records this indicates that dust sedimentation and pedogenesis act simultaneously and result in a non-negligible accretional component in the formation of Holocene soils in loess regions across the Northern Hemisphere. The luminescence ages allowed the modeling of accumulation rates for the Holocene soil which are similar for European, Chinese and U.S.A. loess sites investigated and vary from 2 cm ka−1 to 9 cm ka−1. While accretional pedogenesis has often been implicitly or explicitly assumed in paleoclimatic interpretation of loess-paleosol sequences, especially in the Chinese Loess Plateau, our luminescence data add direct evidence for ongoing sedimentation as interglacial soils formed.