Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
  • Item
    Giant refractometric sensitivity by combining extreme optical Vernier effect and modal interference
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Gomes, André D.; Kobelke, Jens; Bierlich, Jörg; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando
    The optical Vernier effect consists of overlapping responses of a sensing and a reference interferometer with slightly shifted interferometric frequencies. The beating modulation thus generated presents high magnified sensitivity and resolution compared to the sensing interferometer, if the two interferometers are slightly out of tune with each other. However, the outcome of such a condition is a large beating modulation, immeasurable by conventional detection systems due to practical limitations of the usable spectral range. We propose a method to surpass this limitation by using a few-mode sensing interferometer instead of a single-mode one. The overlap response of the different modes produces a measurable envelope, whilst preserving an extremely high magnification factor, an order of magnification higher than current state-of-the-art performances. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of that method in the development of a giant sensitivity fibre refractometer with a sensitivity of around 500 µm/RIU (refractive index unit) and with a magnification factor over 850.
  • Item
    Systematic evaluation of particle loss during handling in the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for eight different drug-coated balloons
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Heinrich, Andreas; Engler, Martin S.; Güttler, Felix V.; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Teichgräber, Ulf K.-M.
    Paclitaxel drug coated balloons (DCBs) should provide optimal drug transfer exclusively to the target tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the particle loss by handling during angioplasty. A robotic arm was developed for systematic and reproducible drug abrasion experiments. The contact force on eight different commercially available DCB types was gradually increased, and high-resolution microscopic images of the deflated and inflated balloons were recorded. Three types of DCBs were classified: no abrasion of the drug in both statuses (deflated and inflated), significant abrasion only in the inflated status, and significant abrasion in both statuses. Quantitative measurements via image processing confirmed the qualitative classification and showed changes of the drug area between 2.25 and 45.73% (13.28 ± 14.29%) in the deflated status, and between 1.66 and 40.41% (21.43 ± 16.48%) in the inflated status. The structures and compositions of the DCBs are different, some are significantly more susceptible to drug loss. Particle loss by handling during angioplasty leads to different paclitaxel doses in the target regions for same DCB types. Susceptibility to involuntary drug loss may cause side effects, such as varying effective paclitaxel doses, which may explain variations in studies regarding the therapeutic outcome.
  • Item
    Tactile perception of randomly rough surfaces
    (Berlin : Springer Nature, 2020) Sahli, Riad; Prot, Aubin; Wang, Anle; Müser, Martin H.; Piovarči, Michal; Didyk, Piotr; Bennewitz, Roland
    Most everyday surfaces are randomly rough and self-similar on sufficiently small scales. We investigated the tactile perception of randomly rough surfaces using 3D-printed samples, where the topographic structure and the statistical properties of scale-dependent roughness were varied independently. We found that the tactile perception of similarity between surfaces was dominated by the statistical micro-scale roughness rather than by their topographic resemblance. Participants were able to notice differences in the Hurst roughness exponent of 0.2, or a difference in surface curvature of 0.8 mm−1 for surfaces with curvatures between 1 and 3 mm−1. In contrast, visual perception of similarity between color-coded images of the surface height was dominated by their topographic resemblance. We conclude that vibration cues from roughness at the length scale of the finger ridge distance distract the participants from including the topography into the judgement of similarity. The interaction between surface asperities and fingertip skin led to higher friction for higher micro-scale roughness. Individual friction data allowed us to construct a psychometric curve which relates similarity decisions to differences in friction. Participants noticed differences in the friction coefficient as small as 0.035 for samples with friction coefficients between 0.34 and 0.45.
  • Item
    Coherent response of the Indian Monsoon Rainfall to Atlantic Multi-decadal Variability over the last 2000 years
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Naidu, Pothuri Divakar; Ganeshram, Raja; Bollasina, Massimo A.; Panmei, Champoungam; Nürnberg, Dirk; Donges, Jonathan F.
    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has a direct effect on the livelihoods of two billion people in the Indian-subcontinent. Yet, our understanding of the drivers of multi-decadal variability of the ISM is far from being complete. In this context, large-scale forcing of ISM rainfall variability with multi-decadal resolution over the last two millennia is investigated using new records of sea surface salinity (δ18Ow) and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Higher δ18Ow values during the Dark Age Cold Period (1550 to 1250 years BP) and the Little Ice Age (700 to 200 years BP) are suggestive of reduced ISM rainfall, whereas lower δ18Ow values during the Medieval Warm Period (1200 to 800 years BP) and the major portion of the Roman Warm Period (1950 to 1550 years BP) indicate a wetter ISM. This variability in ISM rainfall appears to be modulated by the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) via changes in large-scale thermal contrast between the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean, a relationship that is also identifiable in the observational data of the last century. Therefore, we suggest that inter-hemispheric scale interactions between such extra tropical forcing mechanisms and global warming are likely to be influential in determining future trends in ISM rainfall.
  • Item
    Epidemics with mutating infectivity on small-world networks
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Rüdiger, Sten; Plietzsch, Anton; Sagués, Francesc; Sokolov, Igor M.; Kurths, Jürgen
    Epidemics and evolution of many pathogens occur on similar timescales so that their dynamics are often entangled. Here, in a first step to study this problem theoretically, we analyze mutating pathogens spreading on simple SIR networks with grid-like connectivity. We have in mind the spatial aspect of epidemics, which often advance on transport links between hosts or groups of hosts such as cities or countries. We focus on the case of mutations that enhance an agent’s infection rate. We uncover that the small-world property, i.e., the presence of long-range connections, makes the network very vulnerable, supporting frequent supercritical mutations and bringing the network from disease extinction to full blown epidemic. For very large numbers of long-range links, however, the effect reverses and we find a reduced chance for large outbreaks. We study two cases, one with discrete number of mutational steps and one with a continuous genetic variable, and we analyze various scaling regimes. For the continuous case we derive a Fokker-Planck-like equation for the probability density and solve it for small numbers of shortcuts using the WKB approximation. Our analysis supports the claims that a potentiating mutation in the transmissibility might occur during an epidemic wave and not necessarily before its initiation. © 2020, The Author(s).
  • Item
    Neuromorphic on-chip recognition of saliva samples of COPD and healthy controls using memristive devices
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Zarrin, Pouya Soltani; Zahari, Finn; Mahadevaiah, Mamathamba K.; Perez, Eduardo; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Wenger, Christian
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a life-threatening lung disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Implementation of Machine Learning (ML) techniques is crucial for the effective management of COPD in home-care environments. However, shortcomings of cloud-based ML tools in terms of data safety and energy efficiency limit their integration with low-power medical devices. To address this, energy efficient neuromorphic platforms can be used for the hardware-based implementation of ML methods. Therefore, a memristive neuromorphic platform is presented in this paper for the on-chip recognition of saliva samples of COPD patients and healthy controls. Results of its performance evaluations showed that the digital neuromorphic chip is capable of recognizing unseen COPD samples with accuracy and sensitivity values of 89% and 86%, respectively. Integration of this technology into personalized healthcare devices will enable the better management of chronic diseases such as COPD. © 2020, The Author(s).
  • Item
    The association between thyroid function biomarkers and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Albrecht, Diana; Ittermann, Till; Thamm, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Bahls, Martin; Völzke, Henry
    The relation between thyroid function biomarkers and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is currently unclear. Cross-sectional data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Baseline) was analyzed to assess the association between thyroid function biomarkers and ADHD in a population-based, nationally representative sample. The study cohort included 11,588 children and adolescents with 572 and 559 having an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms, respectively. ADHD symptoms were assessed through the Inattention/Hyperactivity subscale of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. ADHD diagnosis was determined by a physician or psychologist. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations were determined enzymatically. Adjusted regression models were used to relate serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 with risk for ADHD diagnosis or symptoms. In children, a 1 mIU/l higher TSH was related to a 10% lower risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–1.00) of ADHD diagnosis. We found a significant positive association between fT3 and continuously assessed ADHD symptoms in children (β 0.08; 95% CI 0.03–0.14). Our results suggest that physical maturity may influence the association between thyroid function biomarkers and risk for ADHD.
  • Item
    Genotyping of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the United Arab Emirates
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Senok, Abiola; Nassar, Rania; Celiloglu, Handan; Nabi, Anju; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Weber, Stefan; Rizvi, Irfan; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Gawlik, Darius; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf
    Reports from Arabian Gulf countries have demonstrated emergence of novel methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. To address the lack of data from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), genetic characterisation of MRSA identified between December 2017 and August 2019 was conducted using DNA microarray-based assays. The 625 MRSA isolates studied were grouped into 23 clonal complexes (CCs) and assigned to 103 strains. CC5, CC6, CC22 and CC30 represented 54.2% (n/N = 339/625) of isolates with other common CCs being CC1, CC8, CC772, CC361, CC80, CC88. Emergence of CC398 MRSA, CC5-MRSA-IV Sri Lanka Clone and ST5/ST225-MRSA-II, Rhine-Hesse EMRSA/New York-Japan Clone in our setting was detected. Variants of pandemic CC8-MRSA-[IVa + ACME I] (PVL+) USA300 were detected and majority of CC772 strains were CC772-MRSA-V (PVL+), “Bengal- Bay Clone”. Novel MRSA strains identified include CC5-MRSA-V (edinA+), CC5-MRSA-[VT + fusC], CC5-MRSA-IVa (tst1+), CC5-MRSA-[V/VT + cas + fusC + ccrA/B-1], CC8-MRSA-V/VT, CC22-MRSA-[IV + fusC + ccrAA/(C)], CC45-MRSA-[IV + fusC + tir], CC80-MRSA-IVa, CC121-MRSA-V/VT, CC152-MRSA-[V + fusC] (PVL+). Although several strains harboured SCC-borne fusidic acid resistance (fusC) (n = 181), erythromycin/clindamycin resistance (ermC) (n = 132) and gentamicin resistance (aacA-aphD) (n = 179) genes, none harboured vancomycin resistance genes while mupirocin resistance gene mupR (n = 2) and cfr gene (n = 1) were rare. An extensive MRSA repertoire including CCs previously unreported in the region and novel strains which probably arose locally suggest an evolving MRSA landscape. © 2020, The Author(s).
  • Item
    Hyperspectral terahertz imaging with electro-optic dual combs and a FET-based detector
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Martín-Mateos, Pedro; Čibiraitė-Lukenskienė, Dovilė; Barreiro, Roberto; de Dios, Cristina; Lisauskas, Alvydas; Krozer, Viktor; Acedo, Pablo
    In this paper, a terahertz hyperspectral imaging architecture based on an electro-optic terahertz dual-comb source is presented and demonstrated. In contrast to single frequency sources, this multi-heterodyne system allows for the characterization of the whole spectral response of the sample in parallel for all the frequency points along the spectral range of the system. This hence provides rapid, highly consistent results and minimizes measurement artifacts. The terahertz illumination signal can be tailored (in spectral coverage and resolution) with high flexibility to meet the requirements of any particular application or experimental scenario while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement. Besides this, the system provides absolute frequency accuracy and a very high coherence that allows for direct signal detection without inter-comb synchronization mechanisms, adaptive acquisition, or post-processing. Using a field-effect transistor-based terahertz resonant 300 GHz detector and the raster-scanning method we demonstrate the two-dimensional hyperspectral imaging of samples of different kinds to illustrate the remarkable capabilities of this innovative architecture. A proof-of-concept demonstration has been performed in which tree leaves and a complex plastic fragment have been analyzed in the 300 GHz range with a frequency resolution of 10 GHz.
  • Item
    Robustly forecasting maize yields in Tanzania based on climatic predictors
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Laudien, Rahel; Schauberger, Bernhard; Makowski, David; Gornott, Christoph
    Seasonal yield forecasts are important to support agricultural development programs and can contribute to improved food security in developing countries. Despite their importance, no operational forecasting system on sub-national level is yet in place in Tanzania. We develop a statistical maize yield forecast based on regional yield statistics in Tanzania and climatic predictors, covering the period 2009–2019. We forecast both yield anomalies and absolute yields at the sub-national scale about 6 weeks before the harvest. The forecasted yield anomalies (absolute yields) have a median Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.72 (0.79) in the out-of-sample cross validation, which corresponds to a median root mean squared error of 0.13 t/ha for absolute yields. In addition, we perform an out-of-sample variable selection and produce completely independent yield forecasts for the harvest year 2019. Our study is potentially applicable to other countries with short time series of yield data and inaccessible or low quality weather data due to the usage of only global climate data and a strict and transparent assessment of the forecasting skill.