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Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
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    Sample-based approach can outperform the classical dynamical analysis - Experimental confirmation of the basin stability method
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Brzeski, P.; Wojewoda, J.; Kapitaniak, T.; Kurths, J.; Perlikowski, P.
    In this paper we show the first broad experimental confirmation of the basin stability approach. The basin stability is one of the sample-based approach methods for analysis of the complex, multidimensional dynamical systems. We show that investigated method is a reliable tool for the analysis of dynamical systems and we prove that it has a significant advantages which make it appropriate for many applications in which classical analysis methods are difficult to apply. We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a forced double pendulum. We examine the ranges of stability for nine different solutions of the system in a two parameter space, namely the amplitude and the frequency of excitation. We apply the path-following and the extended basin stability methods (Brzeski et al., Meccanica 51(11), 2016) and we verify obtained theoretical results in experimental investigations. Comparison of the presented results show that the sample-based approach offers comparable precision to the classical method of analysis. However, it is much simpler to apply and can be used despite the type of dynamical system and its dimensions. Moreover, the sample-based approach has some unique advantages and can be applied without the precise knowledge of parameter values.
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    A regime shift in the Sun-Climate connection with the end of the Medieval Climate Anomaly
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Smirnov, D.A.; Breitenbach, S.F.M.; Feulner, G.; Lechleitner, F.A.; Prufer, K.M.; Baldini, J.U.L.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.
    Understanding the influence of changes in solar activity on Earth's climate and distinguishing it from other forcings, such as volcanic activity, remains a major challenge for palaeoclimatology. This problem is best approached by investigating how these variables influenced past climate conditions as recorded in high precision paleoclimate archives. In particular, determining if the climate system response to these forcings changes through time is critical. Here we use the Wiener-Granger causality approach along with well-established cross-correlation analysis to investigate the causal relationship between solar activity, volcanic forcing, and climate as reflected in well-established Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) rainfall proxy records from Yok Balum Cave, southern Belize. Our analysis reveals a consistent influence of volcanic activity on regional Central American climate over the last two millennia. However, the coupling between solar variability and local climate varied with time, with a regime shift around 1000-1300 CE after which the solar-climate coupling weakened considerably.
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    Metastability for discontinuous dynamical systems under Lévy noise: Case study on Amazonian Vegetation
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Serdukova, L.; Zheng, Y.; Duan, J.; Kurths, J.
    For the tipping elements in the Earth's climate system, the most important issue to address is how stable is the desirable state against random perturbations. Extreme biotic and climatic events pose severe hazards to tropical rainforests. Their local effects are extremely stochastic and difficult to measure. Moreover, the direction and intensity of the response of forest trees to such perturbations are unknown, especially given the lack of efficient dynamical vegetation models to evaluate forest tree cover changes over time. In this study, we consider randomness in the mathematical modelling of forest trees by incorporating uncertainty through a stochastic differential equation. According to field-based evidence, the interactions between fires and droughts are a more direct mechanism that may describe sudden forest degradation in the south-eastern Amazon. In modeling the Amazonian vegetation system, we include symmetric α-stable Lévy perturbations. We report results of stability analysis of the metastable fertile forest state. We conclude that even a very slight threat to the forest state stability represents Ĺevy noise with large jumps of low intensity, that can be interpreted as a fire occurring in a non-drought year. During years of severe drought, high-intensity fires significantly accelerate the transition between a forest and savanna state.
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    Cryogel-supported stem cell factory for customized sustained release of bispecific antibodies for cancer immunotherapy
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Aliperta, Roberta; Welzel, Petra B.; Bergmann, Ralf; Freudenberg, Uwe; Berndt, Nicole; Feldmann, Anja; Arndt, Claudia; Koristka, Stefanie; Stanzione, Marcello; Cartellieri, Marc; Ehninger, Armin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Werner, Carsten; Pietzsch, Jens; Steinbach, Jörg; Bornhäuser, Martin; Bachmann, Michael P.
    Combining stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds provides a promising strategy for the development of drug delivery systems. Here we propose an innovative immunotherapeutic organoid by housing human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), gene-modified for the secretion of an anti-CD33-anti-CD3 bispecific antibody (bsAb), in a small biocompatible star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin cryogel scaffold as a transplantable and low invasive therapeutic machinery for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The macroporous biohybrid cryogel platform displays effectiveness in supporting proliferation and survival of bsAb-releasing-MSCs overtime in vitro and in vivo, avoiding cell loss and ensuring a constant release of sustained and detectable levels of bsAb capable of triggering T-cell-mediated anti-tumor responses and a rapid regression of CD33 + AML blasts. This therapeutic device results as a promising and safe alternative to the continuous administration of short-lived immunoagents and paves the way for effective bsAb-based therapeutic strategies for future tumor treatments.
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    Experimental investigation on preconditioned rate induced tipping in a thermoacoustic system
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Tony, J.; Subarna, S.; Syamkumar, K.S.; Sudha, G.; Akshay, S.; Gopalakrishnan, E.A.; Surovyatkina, E.; Sujith, R.I.
    Many systems found in nature are susceptible to tipping, where they can shift from one stable dynamical state to another. This shift in dynamics can be unfavorable in systems found in various fields ranging from ecology to finance. Hence, it is important to identify the factors that can lead to tipping in a physical system. Tipping can mainly be brought about by a change in parameter or due to the influence of external fluctuations. Further, the rate at which the parameter is varied also determines the final state that the system attains. Here, we show preconditioned rate induced tipping in experiments and in a theoretical model of a thermoacoustic system. We provide a specific initial condition (preconditioning) and vary the parameter at a rate higher than a critical rate to observe tipping. We find that the critical rate is a function of the initial condition. Our study is highly relevant because the parameters that dictate the asymptotic behavior of many physical systems are temporally dynamic.
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    Spontaneous periodic ordering on the surface and in the bulk of dielectrics irradiated by ultrafast laser: A shared electromagnetic origin
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Rudenko, Anton; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Höhm, Sandra; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krüger, Jörg; Bonse, Jörn; Itina, Tatiana E.
    Periodic self-organization of matter beyond the diffraction limit is a puzzling phenomenon, typical both for surface and bulk ultrashort laser processing. Here we compare the mechanisms of periodic nanostructure formation on the surface and in the bulk of fused silica. We show that volume nanogratings and surface nanoripples having subwavelength periodicity and oriented perpendicular to the laser polarization share the same electromagnetic origin. The nanostructure orientation is defined by the near-field local enhancement in the vicinity of the inhomogeneous scattering centers. The periodicity is attributed to the coherent superposition of the waves scattered at inhomogeneities. Numerical calculations also support the multipulse accumulation nature of nanogratings formation on the surface and inside fused silica. Laser surface processing by multiple laser pulses promotes the transition from the high spatial frequency perpendicularly oriented nanoripples to the low spatial frequency ripples, parallel or perpendicular to the laser polarization. The latter structures also share the electromagnetic origin, but are related to the incident field interference with the scattered far-field of rough non-metallic or transiently metallic surfaces. The characteristic ripple appearances are predicted by combined electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical approaches and supported by SEM images of the final surface morphology and by time-resolved pump-probe diffraction measurements.
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    Zebrafish In-Vivo Screening for Compounds Amplifying Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells: - Preclinical Validation in Human CD34+ Stem and Progenitor Cells
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Arulmozhivarman, Guruchandar; Kräter, Martin; Wobus, Manja; Friedrichs, Jens; Bejestani, Elham Pishali; Müller, Katrin; Lambert, Katrin; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Dahl, Andreas; Stöter, Martin; Bickle, Marc; Shayegi, Nona; Hampe, Jochen; Stölzel, Friedrich; Brand, Michael; von Bonin, Malte; Bornhäuser, Martin
    The identification of small molecules that either increase the number and/or enhance the activity of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (hHSPCs) during ex vivo expansion remains challenging. We used an unbiased in vivo chemical screen in a transgenic (c-myb:EGFP) zebrafish embryo model and identified histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), particularly valproic acid (VPA), as significant enhancers of the number of phenotypic HSPCs, both in vivo and during ex vivo expansion. The long-term functionality of these expanded hHSPCs was verified in a xenotransplantation model with NSG mice. Interestingly, VPA increased CD34+ cell adhesion to primary mesenchymal stromal cells and reduced their in vitro chemokine-mediated migration capacity. In line with this, VPA-treated human CD34+ cells showed reduced homing and early engraftment in a xenograft transplant model, but retained their long-term engraftment potential in vivo, and maintained their differentiation ability both in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our data demonstrate that certain HDACIs lead to a net expansion of hHSPCs with retained long-term engraftment potential and could be further explored as candidate compounds to amplify ex-vivo engineered peripheral blood stem cells.
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    Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique
    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip.
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    Prospects of target nanostructuring for laser proton acceleration
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Lübcke, Andrea; Andreev, Alexander A.; Höhm, Sandra; Grunwald, Ruediger; Ehrentraut, Lutz; Schnürer, Matthias
    In laser-based proton acceleration, nanostructured targets hold the promise to allow for significantly boosted proton energies due to strong increase of laser absorption. We used laser-induced periodic surface structures generated in-situ as a very fast and economic way to produce nanostructured targets capable of high-repetition rate applications. Both in experiment and theory, we investigate the impact of nanostructuring on the proton spectrum for different laser-plasma conditions. Our experimental data show that the nanostructures lead to a significant enhancement of absorption over the entire range of laser plasma conditions investigated. At conditions that do not allow for efficient laser absorption by plane targets, i.e. too steep plasma gradients, nanostructuring is found to significantly enhance the proton cutoff energy and conversion efficiency. In contrast, if the plasma gradient is optimized for laser absorption of the plane target, the nanostructure-induced absorption increase is not reflected in higher cutoff energies. Both, simulation and experiment point towards the energy transfer from the laser to the hot electrons as bottleneck.
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    Solid-state 31P and 1H chemical MR micro-imaging of hard tissues and biomaterials with magic angle spinning at very high magnetic field
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2017) Yon, Maxime; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Scheler, Ulrich; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Bujoli, Bruno; Massiot, Dominique; Fayon, Franck
    In this work, we show that it is possible to overcome the limitations of solid-state MRI for rigid tissues due to large line broadening and short dephasing times by combining Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) with rotating pulsed field gradients. This allows recording ex vivo 31P 3D and 2D slice-selected images of rigid tissues and related biomaterials at very high magnetic field, with greatly improved signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution when compared to static conditions. Cross-polarization is employed to enhance contrast and to further depict spatially localized chemical variations in reduced experimental time. In these materials, very high magnetic field and moderate MAS spinning rate directly provide high spectral resolution and enable the use of frequency selective excitation schemes for chemically selective imaging. These new possibilities are exemplified with experiments probing selectively the 3D spatial distribution of apatitic hydroxyl protons inside a mouse tooth with attached jaw bone with a nominal isotropic resolution nearing 100 μm.