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Now showing 1 - 10 of 1195
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    A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Khafaji, Mona; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Börrnert, Felix; Irajizad, Azam
    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatibility and more than six month stability. Alongside earlier nanostructures, the heat generation rate of GIHN is compareable with surfactnat-capped gold nanorods (GNRs). Two reasons are behind this enhancement: Firstly the distance between GNRs and SPIONs is adjusted in a way that the surface plasmon resonance of the new nanostructure is similar to bare GNRs and secondly the fraction of GNRs is raised in the hybrid nanostructure. GIHN is then applied as a photothermal agent using laser irradiation with power as low as 0.5−2 and only 32% of human breast adenocarcinoma cells could survive. The GIHN also acts as a dose-dependent transvers relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agent. The results show that the GINH can be considered as a good candidate for multimodal photothermal therapy and MRI.
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    Edge states and topological insulating phases generated by curving a nanowire with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
    (College Park : American Physical Society, 2015) Gentile, Paola; Cuoco, Mario; Ortix, Carmine
    We prove that curvature effects in low-dimensional nanomaterials can promote the generation of topological states of matter by considering the paradigmatic example of quantum wires with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which are bent in a nanoscale periodic serpentine structure. The effect of the periodic curvature generally results in the appearance of insulating phases with a corresponding novel butterfly spectrum characterized by the formation of finite measure complex regions of forbidden energies. When the Fermi energy lies in the gaps, the system displays localized end states protected by topology. We further show that for certain superstructure periods the system possesses topologically nontrivial insulating phases at half filling. Our results suggest that the local curvature and the topology of the electronic states are inextricably intertwined in geometrically deformed nanomaterials.
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    Phononic-magnetic dichotomy of the thermal Hall effect in the Kitaev material Na2 Co2 TeO6
    (College Park, MD : APS, 2023) Gillig, Matthias; Hong, Xiaochen; Wellm, Christoph; Kataev, Vladislav; Yao, Weiliang; Li, Yuan; Büchner, Bernd; Hess, Christian
    The quest for a half-quantized thermal Hall effect of a Kitaev system represents an important tool to probe topological edge currents of emergent Majorana fermions. Pertinent experimental findings for α-RuCl3 are, however, strongly debated, and it has been argued that the thermal Hall signal stems from phonons or magnons rather than from Majorana fermions. Here, we investigate the thermal Hall effect of the Kitaev candidate material Na2Co2TeO6, and we show that the measured signal emerges from at least two components, phonons and magnetic excitations. This dichotomy results from our discovery that the longitudinal and transversal heat conductivities share clear phononic signatures, while the transversal signal changes sign upon entering the low-temperature, magnetically ordered phase. Our results demonstrate that uncovering a genuinely quantized magnetic thermal Hall effect in Kitaev topological quantum spin liquids such as α-RuCl3 and Na2Co2TeO6 requires disentangling phonon vs magnetic contributions, including potentially fractionalized excitations such as the expected Majorana fermions.
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    Magnetization Dynamics of an Individual Single-Crystalline Fe-Filled Carbon Nanotube
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Lenz, Kilian; Narkowicz, Ryszard; Wagner, Kai; Reiche, Christopher F.; Körner, Julia; Schneider, Tobias; Kákay, Attila; Schultheiss, Helmut; Weissker, Uhland; Wolf, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Büchner, Bernd; Fassbender, Jürgen; Mühl, Thomas; Lindner, Jürgen
    The magnetization dynamics of individual Fe-filled multiwall carbon-nanotubes (FeCNT), grown by chemical vapor deposition, are investigated by microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy and corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Currently, only static magnetometry measurements are available. They suggest that the FeCNTs consist of a single-crystalline Fe nanowire throughout the length. The number and structure of the FMR lines and the abrupt decay of the spin-wave transport seen in BLS indicate, however, that the Fe filling is not a single straight piece along the length. Therefore, a stepwise cutting procedure is applied in order to investigate the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance lines as a function of the nanowire length. The results show that the FeCNT is indeed not homogeneous along the full length but is built from 300 to 400 nm long single-crystalline segments. These segments consist of magnetically high quality Fe nanowires with almost the bulk values of Fe and with a similar small damping in relation to thin films, promoting FeCNTs as appealing candidates for spin-wave transport in magnonic applications. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Effect of Alloying Elements in Melt Spun Mg-alloys for Hydrogen Storage
    (São Carlos : SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, 2016) Rozenberg, Silvia; Saporiti, Fabiana; Lang, Julien; Audebert, Fernando; Botta, Pablo; Stoica, Mihai; Huot, Jacques; Eckert, Jürgen
    In this paper we report the effect of alloying elements on hydrogen storage properties of melt-spun Mg-based alloys. The base alloys Mg90Si10, Mg90Cu10, Mg65Cu35 (at%) were studied. We also investigated the effect of rare earths (using MM: mischmetal) and Al in Mg65Cu25Al10, Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys. All the melt-spun alloys without MM show a crystalline structure, and the Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys showed an amorphous and partially amorphous structure respectively. At 350˚C all the alloys had a crystalline structure during the hydrogen absorption-desorption tests. It was observed that Si and Cu in the binaries alloys hindered completely the activation of the hydrogen absorption. The partial substitution of Cu by MM or Al allowed activation. The combined substitution of Cu by MM and Al showed the best results with the fastest absorption and desorption kinetics, which suggests that this combination can be used for new Mg-alloys to improve hydrogen storage properties.
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    Nesting-driven multipolar order in CeB6 from photoemission tomography
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Koitzsch, A.; Heming, N.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Portnichenko, P.Y.; Dukhnenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Y.; Filipov, V.B.; Lev, L.L.
    Some heavy fermion materials show so-called hidden-order phases which are invisible to many characterization techniques and whose microscopic origin remained controversial for decades. Among such hidden-order compounds, CeB6 is of model character due to its simple electronic configuration and crystal structure. Apart from more conventional antiferromagnetism, it shows an elusive phase at low temperatures, which is commonly associated with multipolar order. Here we show that this phase roots in a Fermi surface instability. This conclusion is based on a full 3D tomographic sampling of the electronic structure by angle-resolved photoemission and comparison with inelastic neutron scattering data. The hidden order is mediated by itinerant electrons. Our measurements will serve as a paradigm for the investigation of hidden-order phases in f-electron systems, but also generally for situations where the itinerant electrons drive orbital or spin order.
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    Theoretical approach to resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in iron-based superconductors at the energy scale of the superconducting gap
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Marra, Pasquale; van den Brink, Jeroen; Sykora, Steffen
    We develop a phenomenological theory to predict the characteristic features of the momentum-dependent scattering amplitude in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the energy scale of the superconducting gap in iron-based super-conductors. Taking into account all relevant orbital states as well as their specific content along the Fermi surface we evaluate the charge and spin dynamical structure factors for the compounds LaOFeAs and LiFeAs, based on tight-binding models which are fully consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. We find a characteristic intensity redistribution between charge and spin dynamical structure factors which discriminates between sign-reversing and sign-preserving quasiparticle excitations. Consequently, our results show that RIXS spectra can distinguish between s± and s++ wave gap functions in the singlet pairing case. In addition, we find that an analogous intensity redistribution at small momenta can reveal the presence of a chiral p-wave triplet pairing.
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    Influence of Viscosity in Fluid Atomization with Surface Acoustic Waves
    (Irvine, CA : Scientific Research Publishing, 2016) Winkler, Andreas; Bergelt, Paul; Hillemann, Lars; Menzel, Siegfried
    In this work, aqueous glycerol solutions are atomized to investigate the influence of the viscosity on the droplet size and the general atomization behavior in a setup using standing surface acoustic waves (sSAW) and a fluid supply at the boundary of the acoustic path. Depending on the fluid viscosity, the produced aerosols have a monomodal or polymodal size distribution. The mean droplet size in the dominant droplet fraction, however, decreases with increasing viscosity. Our results also indicate that the local wavefield conditions are crucial for the atomization process.
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    Studies on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Vit 105 Bulk Metallic Glass
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media S.A., 2020) Gebert, A.; Geissler, D.; Pilz, S.; Uhlemann, M.; Davani, F.A.; Hilke, S.; Rösner, H.; Wilde, G.
    The project “Stress Corrosion Cracking of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses” (SCC of Zr-BMGs) within PP1594 mainly dealt with mechanical–corrosive interactions and failure of this class of metastable materials. It focused on one of the most application-relevant zirconium (Zr)-BMG, Vit(reloy) 105, with composition Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 (at.%). Even though this BMG is known as an extraordinary glass former, the metallurgical processing is still a critical issue. In contrast to conventional processing, i.e., arc melting of master alloy ingots from single constituents, a different route using binary pre-alloys for the master alloys production was applied and led to superior mechanical properties upon mechanical testing under tensile and three-point-bending (3PB) conditions in air. As a reference and for a detailed understanding of failure, fracture, and cracking of Zr-based BMG in air, notched specimen 3PB experiments with in situ microscopic observation were done and the still controversial interpretation of the mechanical behavior of BMG in the framework of fracture mechanics was addressed. The specimen from the in situ 3PB tests served for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations on the structural nature of shear bands in BMG on the atomistic scale. Altogether, complete crack paths could be observed and analyzed, and based on this, details of the shear band-driven crack growth are described. While in first SCC studies using a newly developed setup full cross section (3PB) bars were investigated, in recent in situ experiments, notched specimens were tested in 0.01 M NaCl, yielding strong evidence for a catastrophic failure due to hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The known susceptibility to pitting corrosion in halide-containing environments is only the initial stage for failure under SCC conditions. Once pitting is initiated, the local electrode potential is severely reduced. Further, the hydrolysis reaction of oxidized Zr4+ to zirconyl ions ZrO2+ during local BMG dissolution produces H+ and, thus, a local acidic environment that enables proton reduction and hydrogen absorption in the stressed BMG region. The peculiar failure and fracture surface characteristics as well as the proven local reduction of the pH value in the vicinity of the notch during in situ experiments clearly account for the proposed HE-SCC failure mechanism.
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    High temperature behavior of rual thin films on piezoelectric CTGS and LGS substrates
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2020) Seifert, M.
    This paper reports on a significant further improvement of the high temperature stability of RuAl thin films (110 nm) on the piezoelectric Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) and La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS) substrates. RuAl thin films with AlN or SiO2 cover layers and barriers to the substrate (each 20 nm), as well as a combination of both were prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates, which serve as a reference for fundamental studies, and the piezoelectric CTGS, as well as LGS substrates. In somefilms, additional Al layers were added. To study their high temperature stability, the samples were annealed in air and in high vacuum up to 900 °C, and subsequently their cross-sections, phase formation, film chemistry, and electrical resistivity were analyzed. It was shown that on thermally oxidized Si substrates, all films were stable after annealing in air up to 800 °C and in high vacuum up to 900 °C. The high temperature stability of RuAl thin films on CTGS substrates was improved up to 900 °C in high vacuum by the application of a combined AlN/SiO2 barrier layer and up to 800 °C in air using a SiO2 barrier. On LGS, the films were only stable up to 600 °C in air; however, a single SiO2 barrier layer was sufficient to prevent oxidation during annealing at 900 °C in high vacuum.