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    Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules: detecting sub-cycle laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization in strong mid-IR laser fields
    (Cambridge [u.a.] : Soc., 2016) Bruner, Barry D.; Mašín, Zdeněk; Negro, Matteo; Morales, Felipe; Brambila, Danilo; Devetta, Michele; Faccialà, Davide; Harvey, Alex G.; Ivanov, Misha; Mairesse, Yann; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Serbinenko, Valeria; Soifer, Hadas; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Dudovich, Nirit; Smirnova, Olga
    High harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science, where electronic dynamics can be measured on an attosecond time scale. The strong laser field that triggers the high harmonic response also opens multiple quantum pathways for multielectron dynamics in molecules, resulting in a complex process of multielectron rearrangement during ionization. Using combined experimental and theoretical approaches, we show how multi-dimensional HHG spectroscopy can be used to detect and follow electronic dynamics of core rearrangement on sub-laser cycle time scales. We detect the signatures of laser-driven hole dynamics upon ionization and reconstruct the relative phases and amplitudes for relevant ionization channels in a CO2 molecule on a sub-cycle time scale. Reconstruction of channel-resolved complex ionization amplitudes on attosecond time scales has been a long-standing goal of high harmonic spectroscopy. Our study brings us one step closer to fulfilling this initial promise and developing robust schemes for sub-femtosecond imaging of multielectron rearrangement in complex molecular systems.
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    Direct measurement of Coulomb-laser coupling
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Azoury, Doron; Krüger, Michael; Bruner, Barry D.; Smirnova, Olga; Dudovich, Nirit
    The Coulomb interaction between a photoelectron and its parent ion plays an important role in a large range of light-matter interactions. In this paper we obtain a direct insight into the Coulomb interaction and resolve, for the first time, the phase accumulated by the laser-driven electron as it interacts with the Coulomb potential. Applying extreme-ultraviolet interferometry enables us to resolve this phase with attosecond precision over a large energy range. Our findings identify a strong laser-Coulomb coupling, going beyond the standard recollision picture within the strong-field framework. Transformation of the results to the time domain reveals Coulomb-induced delays of the electrons along their trajectories, which vary by tens of attoseconds with the laser field intensity.