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    Crystal structure of (2S,4S,7S)-7,7-dichloro-4-(1-chloro-1-methylethyl)-1- (2,2,2-trichloroethyl)bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, C12H16Cl 6
    (Berlin : de Gruyter, 2009) Boualy, B.; el Firdoussi, L.; Ali, M.A.; Karim, A.; Spannenberg, A.
    C12H16Cl6, orthorhombic, P2 12121 (no. 19), a = 6.0742(3) Å, b = 9.7189(6) Å, c = 26.700(1) Å, V = 1576.2 Å3, Z = 4, Rgt(F) = 0.019, wRref(F2) = 0.045, T= 200 K. © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.
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    Differentialgeometrie im Grossen (hybrid meeting)
    (Zürich : EMS Publ. House, 2021) Hamenstädt, Ursula; Lang, Urs; Weinkove, Ben
    The field of classical differential geometry has expanded enormously over the last several decades, helped by the development of tools from neighboring fields such as partial differential equations, complex analysis and geometric topology. In the spirit of the previous meetings in the series, this meeting will bring together researchers from apparently separate subfields of differential geometry, but whose work is linked by common themes. In particular, this meeting will emphasize intrinsic geometric questions motivated by the classification and rigidity of global geometric structures and the interaction of curvature with the underlying geometry and topology.
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    Surface modification of mineral dust particles by sulphuric acid processing: Implications for ice nucleation abilities
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Reitz, P.; Spindler, C.; Mentel, T.F.; Poulain, L.; Wex, H.; Mildenberger, K.; Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Clauss, T.; Stratmann, F.; Sullivan, R.C.; DeMott, P.J.; Petters, M.D.; Sierau, B.; Schneider, J.
    The ability of coated mineral dust particles to act as ice nuclei (IN) was investigated at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) during the FROST1- and FROST2-campaigns (Freezing of dust). Sulphuric acid was condensed on the particles which afterwards were optionally humidified, treated with ammonia vapour and/or heat. By means of aerosol mass spectrometry we found evidence that processing of mineral dust particles with sulphuric acid leads to surface modifications of the particles. These surface modifications are most likely responsible for the observed reduction of the IN activation of the particles. The observed particle mass spectra suggest that different treatments lead to different chemical reactions on the particle surface. Possible chemical reaction pathways and products are suggested and the implications on the IN efficiency of the treated dust particles are discussed.
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    Assessing the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes for the production of lactic acid
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2019) López-Gómez, J. Pablo; Latorre-Sánchez, Marcos; Unger, Peter; Schneider, Roland; Coll Lozano, Caterina; Venus, Joachim
    With an estimated yearly production of about 140 Mt in the EU, conventionally, the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) has been disposed in landfills with negative environmental effects. Nonetheless, the chemical composition of this residue make it a substrate with great bioconversion potential. In this study, OFMSW from Spanish municipal treatment plants, were evaluated for the production of LA. Samples were identified according to the sorting mechanisms employed for their collection in: (A) separately collected, (B) non-separately collected and (C) separately collected+paper/cardboard. Enzymatic hydrolysis was used to produce hydrolysates A, B and C accordingly. Hydrolysate A showed the highest total sugars and glucose content with values of 70 and 55 g·L−1, respectively. Following the characterisation, a screening showed that growth of B. coagulans was possible in all three hydrolysates. Furthermore, lab scale fermentations showed that LA final concentrations could reach around 60 g·L−1, with yields from total sugars of above 0.60 g·g−1. A technical scale fermentation of the hydrolysate A resulted in a final LA concentration of 60.7 g·L−1, a yield of 0.71 g·g−1 with a productivity of 2.68 g·L−1·h−1. Overall, it was estimated that 0.23 g of LA could be produced from one g of dry OFMSW.
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    Arbeitsgemeinschaft mit aktuellem Thema: Polylogarithms
    (Zürich : EMS Publ. House, 2004) Kings, Guido; Wildeshaus, Jörg
    [no abstract available]
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    Effects of (complementary) polyelectrolytes characteristics on composite calcium carbonate microparticles properties
    (Bucureşti : [Verlag nicht ermittelbar], 2017) Mic, Cristian Barbu; Mihai, Marcela; Varganici, Cristian Dragos; Schwarz, Simona; Scutaru, Dan; Simionescu, Bogdan C.
    This study follows the possibility to tune the thermal stability of some CaCO3/polymer composites by crystal growth from supersaturated solutions controlled by polymer structure or by using nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complexes (NPECs). As the ratio between the organic and inorganic parts in the composites controls the Ca2+/polymer network crosslinking density, the CaCO3/polymer weight ratio was kept constant at 50/1, varying the initial concentration of the polyanions solutions (0.05 or 0.06 wt.%), the NPECs molar ratio , n+/n- (0.2 or 0.4), or the inorganic precursors concentration (0.25 or 0.3 M). Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) and chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) were used as polyanions. Some NPEC dispersions, prepared with the same polyanions and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), were also used for calcium carbonate crystallization. The characteristics of the prepared composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow particle image analysis (FPIA), particles charge density (CD), zeta-potential (ZP). The thermal stability of the composite particles was investigated as compared to bare CaCO3 microparticles prepared at the same initial inorganic concentrations.
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    A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Khafaji, Mona; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Börrnert, Felix; Irajizad, Azam
    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatibility and more than six month stability. Alongside earlier nanostructures, the heat generation rate of GIHN is compareable with surfactnat-capped gold nanorods (GNRs). Two reasons are behind this enhancement: Firstly the distance between GNRs and SPIONs is adjusted in a way that the surface plasmon resonance of the new nanostructure is similar to bare GNRs and secondly the fraction of GNRs is raised in the hybrid nanostructure. GIHN is then applied as a photothermal agent using laser irradiation with power as low as 0.5 W.cm−2 and only 32% of human breast adenocarcinoma cells could survive. The GIHN also acts as a dose-dependent transvers relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agent. The results show that the GINH can be considered as a good candidate for multimodal photothermal therapy and MRI.
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    Mechanisms of bonding effected by nanoparticles in zirconia coatings applied by spraying of suspensions
    (Saarbrücke : Leibniz-Institut für Neue Materialien, 2008) Adam, Jens; Aslan, Mesut; Drumm, Robert; Veith, Michael
    Zirconia coatings consisting of a mixture of coarse and fine grained zirconia powders prepared by spraying of suspensions and subsequent thermal treatment at limited temperatures (up to 500°C) are poor in adherence and in intrinsic mechanical strength. We have shown elsewhere that mechanical properties of these coatings can be improved clearly by adding a small amount of nanoscaled zirconia. Here, the structural and the chemical development of this coating material and of the nanoparticles is examined to gain information about the underlying bonding mechanisms. The applied temperature is relatively low in comparison to the usual onset temperature of accelerated sintering. Nevertheless, the results show that diffusion controlled material transport mechanisms play their role in bonding. The condensation of surface OH groups may participate in bonding, too. These first results confirm the potential of nanoparticles to act as inorganic binder. Additional research effort to clarify the underlying mechanisms in detail is of interest. For the practical side, it can be concluded that the resulting effect of mechanical consolidation of ceramic structures at relatively low temperatures enables new ceramic applications, for example a new type of ceramic coatings on metallic substrates.
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    Direct nitrous oxide emissions from oilseed rape cropping – a meta-analysis
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Walter, Katja; Don, Axel; Fuß, Roland; Kern, Jürgen; Drewer, Julia; Flessa, Heinz
    Oilseed rape is one of the leading feedstocks for biofuel production in Europe. The climate change mitigation effect of rape methyl ester (RME) is particularly challenged by the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during crop production, mainly as nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. Oilseed rape requires high nitrogen fertilization and crop residues are rich in nitrogen, both potentially causing enhanced N2O emissions. However, GHG emissions of oilseed rape production are often estimated using emission factors that account for crop-type specifics only with respect to crop residues. This meta-analysis therefore aimed to assess annual N2O emissions from winter oilseed rape, to compare them to those of cereals and to explore the underlying reasons for differences. For the identification of the most important factors, linear mixed effects models were fitted with 43 N2O emission data points deriving from 12 different field sites. N2O emissions increased exponentially with N-fertilization rates, but interyear and site-specific variability were high and climate variables or soil parameters did not improve the prediction model. Annual N2O emissions from winter oilseed rape were 22% higher than those from winter cereals fertilized at the same rate. At a common fertilization rate of 200 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the mean fraction of fertilizer N that was lost as N2O-N was 1.27% for oilseed rape compared to 1.04% for cereals. The risk of high yield-scaled N2O emissions increased after a critical N surplus of about 80 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The difference in N2O emissions between oilseed rape and cereal cultivation was especially high after harvest due to the high N contents in oilseed rape's crop residues. However, annual N2O emissions of winter oilseed rape were still lower than predicted by the Stehfest and Bouwman model. Hence, the assignment of oilseed rape to the crop-type classes of cereals or other crops should be reconsidered.
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    Ultrafast OH-stretching frequency shifts of hydrogen-bonded 2-naphthol photoacid-base complexes in solution
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2013) Prémont-Schwarz, M.; Xiao, D.; Sekharan, S.; Batista, V.S.; Nibbering, E.T.J.
    We characterize the transient solvent-dependent OH-stretching frequency shifts of photoacid 2-naphthol hydrogen-bonded with CH3CN in the S0- and S1-states using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, and disentangle specific hydrogen-bonding contributions from nonspecific dielectric response.