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Now showing 1 - 10 of 5106
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    Surface modification of mineral dust particles by sulphuric acid processing: Implications for ice nucleation abilities
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Reitz, P.; Spindler, C.; Mentel, T.F.; Poulain, L.; Wex, H.; Mildenberger, K.; Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Clauss, T.; Stratmann, F.; Sullivan, R.C.; DeMott, P.J.; Petters, M.D.; Sierau, B.; Schneider, J.
    The ability of coated mineral dust particles to act as ice nuclei (IN) was investigated at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) during the FROST1- and FROST2-campaigns (Freezing of dust). Sulphuric acid was condensed on the particles which afterwards were optionally humidified, treated with ammonia vapour and/or heat. By means of aerosol mass spectrometry we found evidence that processing of mineral dust particles with sulphuric acid leads to surface modifications of the particles. These surface modifications are most likely responsible for the observed reduction of the IN activation of the particles. The observed particle mass spectra suggest that different treatments lead to different chemical reactions on the particle surface. Possible chemical reaction pathways and products are suggested and the implications on the IN efficiency of the treated dust particles are discussed.
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    Assessing the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes for the production of lactic acid
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2019) López-Gómez, J. Pablo; Latorre-Sánchez, Marcos; Unger, Peter; Schneider, Roland; Coll Lozano, Caterina; Venus, Joachim
    With an estimated yearly production of about 140 Mt in the EU, conventionally, the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) has been disposed in landfills with negative environmental effects. Nonetheless, the chemical composition of this residue make it a substrate with great bioconversion potential. In this study, OFMSW from Spanish municipal treatment plants, were evaluated for the production of LA. Samples were identified according to the sorting mechanisms employed for their collection in: (A) separately collected, (B) non-separately collected and (C) separately collected+paper/cardboard. Enzymatic hydrolysis was used to produce hydrolysates A, B and C accordingly. Hydrolysate A showed the highest total sugars and glucose content with values of 70 and 55 g·L−1, respectively. Following the characterisation, a screening showed that growth of B. coagulans was possible in all three hydrolysates. Furthermore, lab scale fermentations showed that LA final concentrations could reach around 60 g·L−1, with yields from total sugars of above 0.60 g·g−1. A technical scale fermentation of the hydrolysate A resulted in a final LA concentration of 60.7 g·L−1, a yield of 0.71 g·g−1 with a productivity of 2.68 g·L−1·h−1. Overall, it was estimated that 0.23 g of LA could be produced from one g of dry OFMSW.
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    Effects of (complementary) polyelectrolytes characteristics on composite calcium carbonate microparticles properties
    (Bucureşti : [Verlag nicht ermittelbar], 2017) Mic, Cristian Barbu; Mihai, Marcela; Varganici, Cristian Dragos; Schwarz, Simona; Scutaru, Dan; Simionescu, Bogdan C.
    This study follows the possibility to tune the thermal stability of some CaCO3/polymer composites by crystal growth from supersaturated solutions controlled by polymer structure or by using nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complexes (NPECs). As the ratio between the organic and inorganic parts in the composites controls the Ca2+/polymer network crosslinking density, the CaCO3/polymer weight ratio was kept constant at 50/1, varying the initial concentration of the polyanions solutions (0.05 or 0.06 wt.%), the NPECs molar ratio , n+/n- (0.2 or 0.4), or the inorganic precursors concentration (0.25 or 0.3 M). Poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) and chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) were used as polyanions. Some NPEC dispersions, prepared with the same polyanions and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), were also used for calcium carbonate crystallization. The characteristics of the prepared composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow particle image analysis (FPIA), particles charge density (CD), zeta-potential (ZP). The thermal stability of the composite particles was investigated as compared to bare CaCO3 microparticles prepared at the same initial inorganic concentrations.
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    A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Khafaji, Mona; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Börrnert, Felix; Irajizad, Azam
    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatibility and more than six month stability. Alongside earlier nanostructures, the heat generation rate of GIHN is compareable with surfactnat-capped gold nanorods (GNRs). Two reasons are behind this enhancement: Firstly the distance between GNRs and SPIONs is adjusted in a way that the surface plasmon resonance of the new nanostructure is similar to bare GNRs and secondly the fraction of GNRs is raised in the hybrid nanostructure. GIHN is then applied as a photothermal agent using laser irradiation with power as low as 0.5−2 and only 32% of human breast adenocarcinoma cells could survive. The GIHN also acts as a dose-dependent transvers relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agent. The results show that the GINH can be considered as a good candidate for multimodal photothermal therapy and MRI.
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    Direct nitrous oxide emissions from oilseed rape cropping – a meta-analysis
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2014) Walter, Katja; Don, Axel; Fuß, Roland; Kern, Jürgen; Drewer, Julia; Flessa, Heinz
    Oilseed rape is one of the leading feedstocks for biofuel production in Europe. The climate change mitigation effect of rape methyl ester (RME) is particularly challenged by the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during crop production, mainly as nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils. Oilseed rape requires high nitrogen fertilization and crop residues are rich in nitrogen, both potentially causing enhanced N2O emissions. However, GHG emissions of oilseed rape production are often estimated using emission factors that account for crop-type specifics only with respect to crop residues. This meta-analysis therefore aimed to assess annual N2O emissions from winter oilseed rape, to compare them to those of cereals and to explore the underlying reasons for differences. For the identification of the most important factors, linear mixed effects models were fitted with 43 N2O emission data points deriving from 12 different field sites. N2O emissions increased exponentially with N-fertilization rates, but interyear and site-specific variability were high and climate variables or soil parameters did not improve the prediction model. Annual N2O emissions from winter oilseed rape were 22% higher than those from winter cereals fertilized at the same rate. At a common fertilization rate of 200 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the mean fraction of fertilizer N that was lost as N2O-N was 1.27% for oilseed rape compared to 1.04% for cereals. The risk of high yield-scaled N2O emissions increased after a critical N surplus of about 80 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The difference in N2O emissions between oilseed rape and cereal cultivation was especially high after harvest due to the high N contents in oilseed rape's crop residues. However, annual N2O emissions of winter oilseed rape were still lower than predicted by the Stehfest and Bouwman model. Hence, the assignment of oilseed rape to the crop-type classes of cereals or other crops should be reconsidered.
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    Ultrafast OH-stretching frequency shifts of hydrogen-bonded 2-naphthol photoacid-base complexes in solution
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2013) Prémont-Schwarz, M.; Xiao, D.; Sekharan, S.; Batista, V.S.; Nibbering, E.T.J.
    We characterize the transient solvent-dependent OH-stretching frequency shifts of photoacid 2-naphthol hydrogen-bonded with CH3CN in the S0- and S1-states using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, and disentangle specific hydrogen-bonding contributions from nonspecific dielectric response.
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    Ice-marginal forced regressive deltas in glacial lake basins: geomorphology, facies variability and large-scale depositional architecture
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell, 2018) Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; Polom, Ulrich; Loewer, Markus; Igel, Jan; Pollok, Lukas; Brandes, Christian
    This study presents a synthesis of the geomorphology, facies variability and depositional architecture of ice-marginal deltas affected by rapid lake-level change. The integration of digital elevation models, outcrop, borehole, ground-penetrating radar and high-resolution shear-wave seismic data allows for a comprehensive analysis of these delta systems and provides information about the distinct types of deltaic facies and geometries generated under different lake-level trends. The exposed delta sediments record mainly the phase of maximum lake level and subsequent lake drainage. The stair-stepped profiles of the delta systems reflect the progressive basinward lobe deposition during forced regression when the lakes successively drained. Depending on the rate and magnitude of lake-level fall, fan-shaped, lobate or more digitate tongue-like delta morphologies developed. Deposits of the stair-stepped transgressive delta bodies are buried, downlapped and onlapped by the younger forced regressive deposits. The delta styles comprise both Gilbert-type deltas and shoal-water deltas. The sedimentary facies of the steep Gilbert-type delta foresets include a wide range of gravity-flow deposits. Delta deposits of the forced-regressive phase are commonly dominated by coarse-grained debrisflow deposits, indicating strong upslope erosion and cannibalization of older delta deposits. Deposits of supercritical turbidity currents are particularly common in sand-rich Gilbert-type deltas that formed during slow rises in lake level and during highstands. Foreset beds consist typically of laterally and vertically stacked deposits of antidunes and cyclic steps. The trigger mechanisms for these supercritical turbidity currents were both hyperpycnal meltwater flows and slope-failure events. Shoal-water deltas formed at low water depths during both low rates of lake-level rise and forced regression. Deposition occurred from tractional flows. Transgressive mouthbars form laterally extensive sand-rich delta bodies with a digitate, multi-tongue morphology. In contrast, forced regressive gravelly shoal-water deltas show a high dispersion of flow directions and form laterally overlapping delta lobes. Deformation structures in the forced-regressive ice-marginal deltas are mainly extensional features, including normal faults, small graben or half-graben structures and shear-deformation bands, which are related to gravitational delta tectonics, postglacial faulting during glacial-isostatic adjustment, and crestal collapse above salt domes. A neotectonic component cannot be ruled out in some cases. © 2018 The Authors. Boreas published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Boreas Collegium
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    Bifunctional poly(acrylamide) hydrogels through orthogonal coupling chemistries
    (Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society, 2017) Farrukh, Aleeza; Paez, Julieta I.; Salierno, Marcelo; Fan, Wenqiang; Berninger, Benedikt; del Campo, Aránzazu
    Biomaterials for cell culture allowing simple and quantitative presentation of instructive cues enable rationalization of the interplay between cells and their surrounding microenvironment. Poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) hydrogels are popular 2D-model substrates for this purpose. However, quantitative and reproducible biofunctionalization of PAAm hydrogels with multiple ligands in a trustable, controlled, and independent fashion is not trivial. Here, we describe a method for bifunctional modification of PAAm hydrogels with thioland amine- containing biomolecules with controlled densities in an independent, orthogonal manner. We developed copolymer networks of AAm with 9% acrylic acid and 2% N-(4-(5-(methylsulfonyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)acrylamide. The covalent binding of thiol- and amine- containing chromophores at tunable concentrations was demonstrated and quantified by UV spectroscopy. The morphology, mechanical properties, and homogeneity of the copolymerized hydrogels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, and confocal microscopy studies. Our copolymer hydrogels were bifunctionalized with polylysine and a laminin-mimetic peptide using the specific chemistries. We analyzed the effect of binding protocol of the two components in the maturation of cultured postmitotic cortical neurons. Our substrates supported neuronal attachment, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation. We found that neurons cultured on our hydrogels bifunctionalized with ligand-specific chemistries in a sequential fashion exhibited higher maturation at comparable culture times than using a simultaneous bifunctionalization strategy, displaying a higher number of neurites, branches, and dendritic filopodia. These results demonstrate the relevance of quantitative and optimized coupling chemistries for the performance of simple biomaterials and with sensitive cell types.
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    Simulation of the future sea level contribution of Greenland with a new glacial system model
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Calov, Reinhard; Beyer, Sebastian; Greve, Ralf; Beckmann, Johanna; Willeit, Matteo; Kleiner, Thomas; Rückamp, Martin; Humbert, Angelika; Ganopolski, Andrey
    We introduce the coupled model of the Greenland glacial system IGLOO 1.0, including the polythermal ice sheet model SICOPOLIS (version 3.3) with hybrid dynamics, the model of basal hydrology HYDRO and a parameterization of submarine melt for marine-terminated outlet glaciers. The aim of this glacial system model is to gain a better understanding of the processes important for the future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level rise under future climate change scenarios. The ice sheet is initialized via a relaxation towards observed surface elevation, imposing the palaeo-surface temperature over the last glacial cycle. As a present-day reference, we use the 1961-1990 standard climatology derived from simulations of the regional atmosphere model MAR with ERA reanalysis boundary conditions. For the palaeo-part of the spin-up, we add the temperature anomaly derived from the GRIP ice core to the years 1961-1990 average surface temperature field. For our projections, we apply surface temperature and surface mass balance anomalies derived from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios created by MAR with boundary conditions from simulations with three CMIP5 models. The hybrid ice sheet model is fully coupled with the model of basal hydrology. With this model and the MAR scenarios, we perform simulations to estimate the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea level rise until the end of the 21st and 23rd centuries. Further on, the impact of elevation-surface mass balance feedback, introduced via the MAR data, on future sea level rise is inspected. In our projections, we found the Greenland ice sheet to contribute between 1.9 and 13.0 cm to global sea level rise until the year 2100 and between 3.5 and 76.4 cm until the year 2300, including our simulated additional sea level rise due to elevation-surface mass balance feedback. Translated into additional sea level rise, the strength of this feedback in the year 2100 varies from 0.4 to 1.7 cm, and in the year 2300 it ranges from 1.7 to 21.8 cm. Additionally, taking the Helheim and Store glaciers as examples, we investigate the role of ocean warming and surface runoff change for the melting of outlet glaciers. It shows that ocean temperature and subglacial discharge are about equally important for the melting of the examined outlet glaciers.
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    Inferring causation from time series in Earth system sciences
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2019) Runge, Jakob; Bathiany, Sebastian; Bollt, Erik; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Coumou, Dim; Deyle, Ethan; Glymour, Clark; Kretschmer, Marlene; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; van Nes, Egbert H.; Peters, Jonas; Quax, Rick; Reichstein, Markus; Scheffer, Marten; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Spirtes, Peter; Sugihara, George; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Zscheischler, Jakob
    The heart of the scientific enterprise is a rational effort to understand the causes behind the phenomena we observe. In large-scale complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system, real experiments are rarely feasible. However, a rapidly increasing amount of observational and simulated data opens up the use of novel data-driven causal methods beyond the commonly adopted correlation techniques. Here, we give an overview of causal inference frameworks and identify promising generic application cases common in Earth system sciences and beyond. We discuss challenges and initiate the benchmark platform to close the gap between method users and developers. © 2019, The Author(s).