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    Differentialgeometrie im Grossen (hybrid meeting)
    (Zürich : EMS Publ. House, 2021) Hamenstädt, Ursula; Lang, Urs; Weinkove, Ben
    The field of classical differential geometry has expanded enormously over the last several decades, helped by the development of tools from neighboring fields such as partial differential equations, complex analysis and geometric topology. In the spirit of the previous meetings in the series, this meeting will bring together researchers from apparently separate subfields of differential geometry, but whose work is linked by common themes. In particular, this meeting will emphasize intrinsic geometric questions motivated by the classification and rigidity of global geometric structures and the interaction of curvature with the underlying geometry and topology.
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    Thermoelectric Properties of N-Type Poly (Ether Ether Ketone)/Carbon Nanofiber Melt-Processed Composites
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Paleo, Antonio Jose; Krause, Beate; Soares, Delfim; Melle-Franco, Manuel; Muñoz, Enrique; Pötschke, Petra; Rocha, Ana Maria
    The thermoelectric properties, at temperatures from 30 °C to 100 °C, of melt-processed poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) composites prepared with 10 wt.% of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are discussed in this work. At 30 °C, the PEEK/CNF composites show an electrical conductivity (σ) of ~27 S m−1 and a Seebeck coefficient (S) of −3.4 μV K−1, which means that their majority charge carriers are electrons. The origin of this negative Seebeck is deduced because of the impurities present in the as-received CNFs, which may cause sharply varying and localized states at approximately 0.086 eV above the Fermi energy level (EF) of CNFs. Moreover, the lower S, in absolute value, found in PEEK/CNF composites, when compared with the S of as-received CNFs (−5.3 μV K−1), is attributed to a slight electron withdrawing from the external layers of CNFs by the PEEK matrix. At temperatures from 30 °C to 100 °C, the σ (T) of PEEK/CNF composites, in contrast to the σ (T) of as-received CNFs, shows a negative temperature effect, understood through the 3D variable-range hopping (VRH) model, as a thermally activated hopping mechanism across a random network of potential wells. Moreover, their nonlinear S (T) follows the same behavior reported before for polypropylene composites melt-processed with similar CNFs at the same interval of temperatures.
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    Li+/H+ exchange of Li7La3Zr2O12 single and polycrystals investigated by quantitative LIBS depth profiling
    (Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022) Smetaczek, Stefan; Limbeck, Andreas; Zeller, Veronika; Ring, Joseph; Ganschow, Steffen; Rettenwander, Daniel; Fleig, Jürgen
    Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets are highly attractive to be used as solid electrolyte in solid-state Li batteries. However, LLZO suffers from chemical interaction with air and humidity, causing Li+/H+ exchange with detrimental implication on its performance, processing and scalability. To better understand the kinetics of the detrimental Li+/H+ exchange and its dependence on microstructural features, accelerated Li+/H+ exchange experiments were performed on single crystalline and polycrystalline LLZO, exposed for 80 minutes to 80 °C hot water. The resulting chemical changes were quantified by analytical methods, i.e. inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). From the time dependence of the Li+ enrichment in the water, measured by ICP-OES, a bulk interdiffusion coefficient of Li+/H+ could be determined (7 × 10−17 m2 s−1 at 80 °C). Depth dependent concentrations were obtained from the LIBS data for both ions after establishing a calibration method enabling not only Li+ but also H+ quantification in the solid electrolyte. Short interdiffusion lengths in the 1 μm range are found for the single crystalline Ga:LLZO, in accordance with the measured bulk diffusion coefficient. In polycrystalline Ta:LLZO, however, very long diffusion tails in the 20 μm range and ion exchange fractions up to about 70% are observed. Those are attributed to fast ion interdiffusion along grain boundaries. The severe compositional changes also strongly affect the electrical properties measured by impedance spectroscopy. This study highlights that microstructural effects may be decisive for the Li+/H+ ion exchange kinetics of LLZO.
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    Automated and rapid identification of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli against the lead drugs of acylureidopenicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones using specific Raman marker bands
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH-Verl., 2020) Götz, Theresa; Dahms, Marcel; Kirchhoff, Johanna; Beleites, Claudia; Glaser, Uwe; Bohnert, Jürgen A.; Pletz, Mathias W.; Popp, Jürgen; Schlattmann, Peter; Neugebauer, Ute
    A Raman-based, strain-independent, semi-automated method is presented that allows the rapid (<3 hours) determination of antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical samples. Applying a priori knowledge about the mode of action of the respective antibiotic, we identified characteristic Raman marker bands in the spectrum and calculated batch-wise weighted sum scores from standardized Raman intensity differences between spectra of antibiotic exposed and nonexposed samples of the same strains. The lead substances for three relevant antibiotic classes (fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin, third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime, ureidopenicillin piperacillin) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for the susceptibility testing of two Escherichia coli laboratory strains and 12 clinical isolates. The method benefits from the parallel incubation of control and treated samples, which reduces the variance due to alterations in cultivation conditions and the standardization of differences between batches leading to long-term comparability of Raman measurements. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Phononic-magnetic dichotomy of the thermal Hall effect in the Kitaev material Na2 Co2 TeO6
    (College Park, MD : APS, 2023) Gillig, Matthias; Hong, Xiaochen; Wellm, Christoph; Kataev, Vladislav; Yao, Weiliang; Li, Yuan; Büchner, Bernd; Hess, Christian
    The quest for a half-quantized thermal Hall effect of a Kitaev system represents an important tool to probe topological edge currents of emergent Majorana fermions. Pertinent experimental findings for α-RuCl3 are, however, strongly debated, and it has been argued that the thermal Hall signal stems from phonons or magnons rather than from Majorana fermions. Here, we investigate the thermal Hall effect of the Kitaev candidate material Na2Co2TeO6, and we show that the measured signal emerges from at least two components, phonons and magnetic excitations. This dichotomy results from our discovery that the longitudinal and transversal heat conductivities share clear phononic signatures, while the transversal signal changes sign upon entering the low-temperature, magnetically ordered phase. Our results demonstrate that uncovering a genuinely quantized magnetic thermal Hall effect in Kitaev topological quantum spin liquids such as α-RuCl3 and Na2Co2TeO6 requires disentangling phonon vs magnetic contributions, including potentially fractionalized excitations such as the expected Majorana fermions.
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    Different Radial Modification Profiles Observed on APPJ-Treated Polypropylene Surfaces according to the Distance between Plasma Outlet and Target
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) do Nascimento, Fellype; Silva Leal, Bruno; Quade, Antje; Kostov, Konstantin Georgiev
    The plasma jet transfer technique relies on a conductive wire at floating potential, which, upon entering in contact with a primary discharge, is capable of igniting a small plasma plume at the distal end of a long flexible plastic tube. In this work, two different long tube configurations were employed for the surface modification of polypropylene (PP) samples using argon as the working gas. One of the jet configurations has a thin copper (Cu) wire, which was installed inside the long tube. In the other configuration, the floating electrode is a metallic mesh placed between two plastic tubes in a coaxial arrangement. In the first case, the tip of the Cu wire is in direct contact with the working gas at the plasma outlet, whereas, in the second, the inner plastic tube provides an additional dielectric barrier that prevents the conductor from being in contact with the gas. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements on treated PP samples revealed that different surface modification radial profiles are formed when the distance (d) between the plasma outlet and target is changed. Moreover, it was found that the highest WCA reduction does not always occur at the point where the plasma impinges the surface of the material, especially when the d value is small. Through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, it was confirmed that the WCA values are directly linked to the oxygen-functional groups formed on the PP surfaces after the plasma treatment. An analysis of the WCA measurements along the surface, as well as their temporal evolution, together with the XPS data, suggest that, when the treatment is performed at small d values, the plasma jet removes some functional groups at the point where the plasma hits the surface, thus leading to peculiar WCA profiles.
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    Optical, electrical and chemical properties of PEO:I2 complex composite films
    (Heidelberg [u.a.] : Springer, 2022) Telfah, Ahmad; Al-Bataineh, Qais M.; Tolstik, Elen; Ahmad, Ahmad A.; Alsaad, Ahmad M.; Ababneh, Riad; Tavares, Carlos J.; Hergenröder, Roland
    Synthesized PEO:I2 complex composite films with different I2 concentrations were deposited onto fused silica substrates using a dip-coating method. Incorporation of PEO films with I2 increases the electrical conductivity of the composite, reaching a maximum of 46 mS/cm for 7 wt% I2. The optical and optoelectronic properties of the complex composite films were studied using the transmittance and reflectance spectra in the UV-Vis region. The transmittance of PEO decreases with increasing I2 content. From this study, the optical bandgap energy decreases from 4.42 to 3.28 eV as I2 content increases from 0 to 7 wt%. In addition, the refractive index for PEO films are in the range of 1.66 and 2.00.1H NMR spectra of pure PEO film shows two major peaks at 3.224 ppm and 1.038 ppm, with different widths assigned to the mobile polymer chains in the amorphous phase, whereas the broad component is assigned to the more rigid molecules in the crystalline phase, respectively. By adding I2 to the PEO, both peaks (amorphous and crystal) are shifted to lower NMR frequencies indicating that I2 is acting as a Lewis acid, and PEO is acting as Lewis base. Hence, molecular iodine reacts favorably with PEO molecules through a charge transfer mechanism, and the formation of triiodide (I3-), the iodite (IO2-) anion, I 2· · · PEO and I2+···PEO complexes. PEO:I2 complex composite films are expected to be suitable for optical, electrical, and optoelectronic applications.
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    An Innovative Protocol for Metaproteomic Analyses of Microbial Pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2021) Graf, Alexander C.; Striesow, Johanna; Pané-Farré, Jan; Sura, Thomas; Wurster, Martina; Lalk, Michael; Pieper, Dietmar H.; Becher, Dörte; Kahl, Barbara C.; Riedel, Katharina
    Hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF) are increased viscosity of mucus and impaired mucociliary clearance within the airways due to mutations of the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator gene. This facilitates the colonization of the lung by microbial pathogens and the concomitant establishment of chronic infections leading to tissue damage, reduced lung function, and decreased life expectancy. Although the interplay between key CF pathogens plays a major role during disease progression, the pathophysiology of the microbial community in CF lungs remains poorly understood. Particular challenges in the analysis of the microbial population present in CF sputum is (I) the inhomogeneous, viscous, and slimy consistence of CF sputum, and (II) the high number of human proteins masking comparably low abundant microbial proteins. To address these challenges, we used 21 CF sputum samples to develop a reliable, reproducible and widely applicable protocol for sputum processing, microbial enrichment, cell disruption, protein extraction and subsequent metaproteomic analyses. As a proof of concept, we selected three sputum samples for detailed metaproteome analyses and complemented and validated metaproteome data by 16S sequencing, metabolomic as well as microscopic analyses. Applying our protocol, the number of bacterial proteins/protein groups increased from 199-425 to 392-868 in enriched samples compared to nonenriched controls. These early microbial metaproteome data suggest that the arginine deiminase pathway and multiple proteases and peptidases identified from various bacterial genera could so far be underappreciated in their contribution to the CF pathophysiology. By providing a standardized and effective protocol for sputum processing and microbial enrichment, our study represents an important basis for future studies investigating the physiology of microbial pathogens in CF in vivo – an important prerequisite for the development of novel antimicrobial therapies to combat chronic recurrent airway infection in CF.
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    Nonlinear Optical Investigation of Microbial Chromoproteins
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2020) Krekic, Szilvia; Zakar, Tomás; Gombos, Zoltán; Valkai, Sándor; Mero, Mark; Zimányi, László; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Dér, András
    Membrane-bound or cytosolic light-sensitive proteins, playing a crucial role in energy- and signal-transduction processes of various photosynthetic microorganisms, have been optimized for sensing or harvesting light by myriads of years of evolution. Upon absorption of a photon, they undergo a usually cyclic reaction series of conformations, and the accompanying spectro-kinetic events assign robust nonlinear optical (NLO) properties for these chromoproteins. During recent years, they have attracted a considerable interest among researchers of the applied optics community as well, where finding the appropriate NLO material for a particular application is a pivotal task. Potential applications have emerged in various branches of photonics, including optical information storage and processing, higher-harmonic and white-light continuum generation, or biosensorics. In our earlier work, we also raised the possibility of using chromoproteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin (bR), as building blocks for the active elements of integrated optical (IO) circuits, where several organic and inorganic photonic materials have been considered as active components, but so far none of them has been deemed ideal for the purpose. In the current study, we investigate the linear and NLO properties of biofilms made of photoactive yellow protein (PYP) and bR. The kinetics of the photoreactions are monitored by time-resolved absorption experiments, while the refractive index of the films and its light-induced changes are measured using the Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) and Z-scan techniques, respectively. The nonlinear refractive index and the refractive index change of both protein films were determined in the green spectral range in a wide range of intensities and at various laser repetition rates. The nonlinear refractive index and refractive index change of PYP were compared to those of bR, with respect to photonics applications. Our results imply that the NLO properties of these proteins make them promising candidates for utilization in applied photonics, and they should be considered as valid alternatives for active components of IO circuits. © Copyright © 2020 Krekic, Zakar, Gombos, Valkai, Mero, Zimányi, Heiner and Dér.
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    Optimized Deep Learning Model as a Basis for Fast UAV Mapping of Weed Species in Winter Wheat Crops
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2021) de Camargo, Tibor; Schirrmann, Michael; Landwehr, Niels; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Pflanz, Michael
    Weed maps should be available quickly, reliably, and with high detail to be useful for site-specific management in crop protection and to promote more sustainable agriculture by reducing pesticide use. Here, the optimization of a deep residual convolutional neural network (ResNet-18) for the classification of weed and crop plants in UAV imagery is proposed. The target was to reach sufficient performance on an embedded system by maintaining the same features of the ResNet-18 model as a basis for fast UAV mapping. This would enable online recognition and subsequent mapping of weeds during UAV flying operation. Optimization was achieved mainly by avoiding redundant computations that arise when a classification model is applied on overlapping tiles in a larger input image. The model was trained and tested with imagery obtained from a UAV flight campaign at low altitude over a winter wheat field, and classification was performed on species level with the weed species Matricaria chamomilla L., Papaver rhoeas L., Veronica hederifolia L., and Viola arvensis ssp. arvensis observed in that field. The ResNet-18 model with the optimized image-level prediction pipeline reached a performance of 2.2 frames per second with an NVIDIA Jetson AGX Xavier on the full resolution UAV image, which would amount to about 1.78 ha h−1 area output for continuous field mapping. The overall accuracy for determining crop, soil, and weed species was 94%. There were some limitations in the detection of species unknown to the model. When shifting from 16-bit to 32-bit model precision, no improvement in classification accuracy was observed, but a strong decline in speed performance, especially when a higher number of filters was used in the ResNet-18 model. Future work should be directed towards the integration of the mapping process on UAV platforms, guiding UAVs autonomously for mapping purpose, and ensuring the transferability of the models to other crop fields.