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Now showing 1 - 10 of 729
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    Guidance of mesenchymal stem cells on fibronectin structured hydrogel films
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2014) Kasten, Annika; Naser, Tamara; Brüllhoff, Kristina; Fiedler, Jörg; Müller, Petra; Möller, Martin; Rychly, Joachim; Groll, Jürgen; Brenner, Rolf E.; Engler, Adam J.
    Designing of implant surfaces using a suitable ligand for cell adhesion to stimulate specific biological responses of stem cells will boost the application of regenerative implants. For example, materials that facilitate rapid and guided migration of stem cells would promote tissue regeneration. When seeded on fibronectin (FN) that was homogeneously immmobilized to NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO), which otherwise prevents protein binding and cell adhesion, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) revealed a faster migration, increased spreading and a more rapid organization of different cellular components for cell adhesion on fibronectin than on a glass surface. To further explore, how a structural organization of FN controls the behavior of MSC, adhesive lines of FN with varying width between 10 µm and 80 µm and spacings between 5 µm and 20 µm that did not allow cell adhesion were generated. In dependance on both line width and gaps, cells formed adjacent cell contacts, were individually organized in lines, or bridged the lines. With decreasing sizes of FN lines, speed and directionality of cell migration increased, which correlated with organization of the actin cytoskeleton, size and shape of the nuclei as well as of focal adhesions. Together, defined FN lines and gaps enabled a fine tuning of the structural organization of cellular components and migration. Microstructured adhesive substrates can mimic the extracellular matrix in vivo and stimulate cellular mechanisms which play a role in tissue regeneration.
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    Engineering new limits to magnetostriction through metastability in iron-gallium alloys
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Meisenheimer, P.B.; Steinhardt, R.A.; Sung, S.H.; Williams, L.D.; Zhuang, S.; Nowakowski, M.E.; Novakov, S.; Torunbalci, M.M.; Prasad, B.; Zollner, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Dawley, N.M.; Schubert, J.; Hunter, A.H.; Manipatruni, S.; Nikonov, D.E.; Young, I.A.; Chen, L.Q.; Bokor, J.; Bhave, S.A.; Ramesh, R.; Hu, J.-M.; Kioupakis, E.; Hovden, R.; Schlom, D.G.; Heron, J.T.
    Magnetostrictive materials transduce magnetic and mechanical energies and when combined with piezoelectric elements, evoke magnetoelectric transduction for high-sensitivity magnetic field sensors and energy-efficient beyond-CMOS technologies. The dearth of ductile, rare-earth-free materials with high magnetostrictive coefficients motivates the discovery of superior materials. Fe1−xGax alloys are amongst the highest performing rare-earth-free magnetostrictive materials; however, magnetostriction becomes sharply suppressed beyond x = 19% due to the formation of a parasitic ordered intermetallic phase. Here, we harness epitaxy to extend the stability of the BCC Fe1−xGax alloy to gallium compositions as high as x = 30% and in so doing dramatically boost the magnetostriction by as much as 10x relative to the bulk and 2x larger than canonical rare-earth based magnetostrictors. A Fe1−xGax − [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7−[PbTiO3]0.3 (PMN-PT) composite magnetoelectric shows robust 90° electrical switching of magnetic anisotropy and a converse magnetoelectric coefficient of 2.0 × 10−5 s m−1. When optimally scaled, this high coefficient implies stable switching at ~80 aJ per bit.
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    Publisher Correction: Multiple fermion scattering in the weakly coupled spin-chain compound YbAlO3 (Nature Communications, (2021), 12, 1, (3599), 10.1038/s41467-021-23585-z)
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2021) Nikitin, S.E.; Nishimoto, S.; Fan, Y.; Wu, J.; Wu, L.S.; Sukhanov, A.S.; Brando, M.; Pavlovskii, N.S.; Xu, J.; Vasylechko, L.; Yu, R.; Podlesnyak, A.
    [No abstract available]
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    Phonon driven charge dynamics in polycrystalline acetylsalicylic acid mapped by ultrafast x-ray diffraction
    (Melville, NY : AIP Publishing LLC, 2019) Hauf, Christoph; Hernandez Salvador, Antonio-Andres; Holtz, Marcel; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas
    The coupled lattice and charge dynamics induced by phonon excitation in polycrystalline acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) are mapped by femtosecond x-ray powder diffraction. The hybrid-mode character of the 0.9 ± 0.1 THz methyl rotation in the aspirin molecules is evident from collective charge relocations over distances of some 100 pm, much larger than the sub-picometer nuclear displacements. Oscillatory charge relocations around the methyl group generate a torque on the latter, thus coupling electronic and nuclear motions.
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    The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) for CMIP6
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Eyring, Veronika; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Hurtt, George; Knutti, Reto; Kriegler, Elmar; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lowe, Jason; Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard; Riahi, Keywan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.
    Projections of future climate change play a fundamental role in improving understanding of the climate system as well as characterizing societal risks and response options. The Scenario Model Intercomparison Project (ScenarioMIP) is the primary activity within Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) that will provide multi-model climate projections based on alternative scenarios of future emissions and land use changes produced with integrated assessment models. In this paper, we describe ScenarioMIP's objectives, experimental design, and its relation to other activities within CMIP6. The ScenarioMIP design is one component of a larger scenario process that aims to facilitate a wide range of integrated studies across the climate science, integrated assessment modeling, and impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability communities, and will form an important part of the evidence base in the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments. At the same time, it will provide the basis for investigating a number of targeted science and policy questions that are especially relevant to scenario-based analysis, including the role of specific forcings such as land use and aerosols, the effect of a peak and decline in forcing, the consequences of scenarios that limit warming to below 2°C, the relative contributions to uncertainty from scenarios, climate models, and internal variability, and long-term climate system outcomes beyond the 21st century. To serve this wide range of scientific communities and address these questions, a design has been identified consisting of eight alternative 21st century scenarios plus one large initial condition ensemble and a set of long-term extensions, divided into two tiers defined by relative priority. Some of these scenarios will also provide a basis for variants planned to be run in other CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs to investigate questions related to specific forcings. Harmonized, spatially explicit emissions and land use scenarios generated with integrated assessment models will be provided to participating climate modeling groups by late 2016, with the climate model simulations run within the 2017–2018 time frame, and output from the climate model projections made available and analyses performed over the 2018–2020 period.
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    Monoclonal Antibodies 13A4 and AC133 Do Not Recognize the Canine Ortholog of Mouse and Human Stem Cell Antigen Prominin-1 (CD133)
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2016) Thamm, Kristina; Graupner, Sylvi; Werner, Carsten; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis; Nabi, Ivan R
    The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133) is widely used in medicine as a cell surface marker of stem and cancer stem cells. It has opened new avenues in stem cell-based regenerative therapy and oncology. This molecule is largely used with human samples or the mouse model, and consequently most biological tools including antibodies are directed against human and murine prominin-1. Although the general structure of prominin-1 including its membrane topology is conserved throughout the animal kingdom, its primary sequence is poorly conserved. Thus, it is unclear if anti-human and -mouse prominin-1 antibodies cross-react with their orthologs in other species, especially dog. Answering this issue is imperative in light of the growing number of studies using canine prominin-1 as an antigenic marker. Here, we address this issue by cloning the canine prominin-1 and use its overexpression as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine its immunoreactivity with antibodies against human or mouse prominin-1. We used immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting techniques and surprisingly found no cross-species immunoreactivity. These results raise some caution in data interpretation when anti-prominin-1 antibodies are used in interspecies studies.
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    Ocean warming and acidification may drag down the commercial Arctic cod fishery by 2100
    (San Francisco, California, US : PLOS, 2020) Hänsel, Martin C.; Schmidt, Jörn O.; Stiasny, Martina H.; Stöven, Max T.; Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.
    The Arctic Ocean is an early warning system for indicators and effects of climate change. We use a novel combination of experimental and time-series data on effects of ocean warming and acidification on the commercially important Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) to incorporate these physiological processes into the recruitment model of the fish population. By running an ecological-economic optimization model, we investigate how the interaction of ocean warming, acidification and fishing pressure affects the sustainability of the fishery in terms of ecological, economic, social and consumer-related indicators, ranging from present day conditions up to future climate change scenarios. We find that near-term climate change will benefit the fishery, but under likely future warming and acidification this large fishery is at risk of collapse by the end of the century, even with the best adaptation effort in terms of reduced fishing pressure.
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    Evaluating spatially resolved influence of soil and tree water status on quality of European plum grown in semi-humid climate
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media, 2017) Käthner, Jana; Ben-Gal, Alon; Gebbers, Robin; Peeters, Aviva; Herppich, Werner B.; Zude-Sasse, Manuela
    In orchards, the variations of fruit quality and its determinants are crucial for resource effective measures. In the present study, a drip-irrigated plum production (Prunus domestica L. “Tophit plus”/Wavit) located in a semi-humid climate was studied. Analysis of the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) of soil showed spatial patterns of sand lenses in the orchard. Water status of sample trees was measured instantaneously by means of leaf water potential, Ψleaf [MPa], and for all trees by thermal imaging of canopies and calculation of the crop water stress index (CWSI). Methods for determining CWSI were evaluated. A CWSI approach calculating canopy and reference temperatures from the histogram of pixels from each image itself was found to suit the experimental conditions. Soil ECa showed no correlation with specific leaf area ratio and cumulative water use efficiency (WUEc) derived from the crop load. The fruit quality, however, was influenced by physiological drought stress in trees with high crop load and, resulting (too) high WUEc, when fruit driven water demand was not met. As indicated by analysis of variance, neither ECa nor the instantaneous CWSI could be used as predictors of fruit quality, while the interaction of CWSI and WUEc did succeed in indicating significant differences. Consequently, both WUEc and CWSI should be integrated in irrigation scheduling for positive impact on fruit quality.
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    Enhanced tenacity of mycobacterial aerosols from necrotic neutrophils
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Pfrommer, E.; Dreier, C.; Gabriel, G.; Dallenga, T.; Reimer, R.; Schepanski, K.; Scherließ, R.; Schaible, U.E.; Gutsmann, T.
    The tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily transmitted through air, but little is known about the tenacity of mycobacterium-containing aerosols derived from either suspensions or infected neutrophils. Analysis of mycobacterial aerosol particles generated from bacterial suspensions revealed an average aerodynamic diameter and mass density that may allow distant airborne transmission. The volume and mass of mycobacterial aerosol particles increased with elevated relative humidity. To more closely mimic aerosol formation that occurs in active TB patients, aerosols from mycobacterium-infected neutrophils were analysed. Mycobacterium-infected intact neutrophils showed a smaller particle size distribution and lower viability than free mycobacteria. In contrast, mycobacterium-infected necrotic neutrophils, predominant in M. tuberculosis infection, revealed particle sizes and viability rates similar to those found for free mycobacteria, but in addition, larger aggregates of viable mycobacteria were observed. Therefore, mycobacteria are shielded from environmental stresses in multibacillary aggregates generated from necrotic neutrophils, which allows improved tenacity but emphasizes short distance transmission between close contacts.
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    Integrated molecular diode as 10 MHz half-wave rectifier based on an organic nanostructure heterojunction
    ([London] : Nature Publishing Group UK, 2020) Li, Tianming; Bandari, Vineeth Kumar; Hantusch, Martin; Xin, Jianhui; Kuhrt, Robert; Ravishankar, Rachappa; Xu, Longqian; Zhang, Jidong; Knupfer, Martin; Zhu, Feng; Yan, Donghang; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Considerable efforts have been made to realize nanoscale diodes based on single molecules or molecular ensembles for implementing the concept of molecular electronics. However, so far, functional molecular diodes have only been demonstrated in the very low alternating current frequency regime, which is partially due to their extremely low conductance and the poor degree of device integration. Here, we report about fully integrated rectifiers with microtubular soft-contacts, which are based on a molecularly thin organic heterojunction and are able to convert alternating current with a frequency of up to 10 MHz. The unidirectional current behavior of our devices originates mainly from the intrinsically different surfaces of the bottom planar and top microtubular Au electrodes while the excellent high frequency response benefits from the charge accumulation in the phthalocyanine molecular heterojunction, which not only improves the charge injection but also increases the carrier density.