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    Surface modification of mineral dust particles by sulphuric acid processing: Implications for ice nucleation abilities
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2011) Reitz, P.; Spindler, C.; Mentel, T.F.; Poulain, L.; Wex, H.; Mildenberger, K.; Niedermeier, D.; Hartmann, S.; Clauss, T.; Stratmann, F.; Sullivan, R.C.; DeMott, P.J.; Petters, M.D.; Sierau, B.; Schneider, J.
    The ability of coated mineral dust particles to act as ice nuclei (IN) was investigated at LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) during the FROST1- and FROST2-campaigns (Freezing of dust). Sulphuric acid was condensed on the particles which afterwards were optionally humidified, treated with ammonia vapour and/or heat. By means of aerosol mass spectrometry we found evidence that processing of mineral dust particles with sulphuric acid leads to surface modifications of the particles. These surface modifications are most likely responsible for the observed reduction of the IN activation of the particles. The observed particle mass spectra suggest that different treatments lead to different chemical reactions on the particle surface. Possible chemical reaction pathways and products are suggested and the implications on the IN efficiency of the treated dust particles are discussed.
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    Ice-marginal forced regressive deltas in glacial lake basins: geomorphology, facies variability and large-scale depositional architecture
    (Oxford [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell, 2018) Winsemann, Jutta; Lang, Jörg; Polom, Ulrich; Loewer, Markus; Igel, Jan; Pollok, Lukas; Brandes, Christian
    This study presents a synthesis of the geomorphology, facies variability and depositional architecture of ice-marginal deltas affected by rapid lake-level change. The integration of digital elevation models, outcrop, borehole, ground-penetrating radar and high-resolution shear-wave seismic data allows for a comprehensive analysis of these delta systems and provides information about the distinct types of deltaic facies and geometries generated under different lake-level trends. The exposed delta sediments record mainly the phase of maximum lake level and subsequent lake drainage. The stair-stepped profiles of the delta systems reflect the progressive basinward lobe deposition during forced regression when the lakes successively drained. Depending on the rate and magnitude of lake-level fall, fan-shaped, lobate or more digitate tongue-like delta morphologies developed. Deposits of the stair-stepped transgressive delta bodies are buried, downlapped and onlapped by the younger forced regressive deposits. The delta styles comprise both Gilbert-type deltas and shoal-water deltas. The sedimentary facies of the steep Gilbert-type delta foresets include a wide range of gravity-flow deposits. Delta deposits of the forced-regressive phase are commonly dominated by coarse-grained debrisflow deposits, indicating strong upslope erosion and cannibalization of older delta deposits. Deposits of supercritical turbidity currents are particularly common in sand-rich Gilbert-type deltas that formed during slow rises in lake level and during highstands. Foreset beds consist typically of laterally and vertically stacked deposits of antidunes and cyclic steps. The trigger mechanisms for these supercritical turbidity currents were both hyperpycnal meltwater flows and slope-failure events. Shoal-water deltas formed at low water depths during both low rates of lake-level rise and forced regression. Deposition occurred from tractional flows. Transgressive mouthbars form laterally extensive sand-rich delta bodies with a digitate, multi-tongue morphology. In contrast, forced regressive gravelly shoal-water deltas show a high dispersion of flow directions and form laterally overlapping delta lobes. Deformation structures in the forced-regressive ice-marginal deltas are mainly extensional features, including normal faults, small graben or half-graben structures and shear-deformation bands, which are related to gravitational delta tectonics, postglacial faulting during glacial-isostatic adjustment, and crestal collapse above salt domes. A neotectonic component cannot be ruled out in some cases. © 2018 The Authors. Boreas published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Boreas Collegium
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    Simulation of the future sea level contribution of Greenland with a new glacial system model
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : Copernicus, 2018) Calov, Reinhard; Beyer, Sebastian; Greve, Ralf; Beckmann, Johanna; Willeit, Matteo; Kleiner, Thomas; Rückamp, Martin; Humbert, Angelika; Ganopolski, Andrey
    We introduce the coupled model of the Greenland glacial system IGLOO 1.0, including the polythermal ice sheet model SICOPOLIS (version 3.3) with hybrid dynamics, the model of basal hydrology HYDRO and a parameterization of submarine melt for marine-terminated outlet glaciers. The aim of this glacial system model is to gain a better understanding of the processes important for the future contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level rise under future climate change scenarios. The ice sheet is initialized via a relaxation towards observed surface elevation, imposing the palaeo-surface temperature over the last glacial cycle. As a present-day reference, we use the 1961-1990 standard climatology derived from simulations of the regional atmosphere model MAR with ERA reanalysis boundary conditions. For the palaeo-part of the spin-up, we add the temperature anomaly derived from the GRIP ice core to the years 1961-1990 average surface temperature field. For our projections, we apply surface temperature and surface mass balance anomalies derived from RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios created by MAR with boundary conditions from simulations with three CMIP5 models. The hybrid ice sheet model is fully coupled with the model of basal hydrology. With this model and the MAR scenarios, we perform simulations to estimate the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea level rise until the end of the 21st and 23rd centuries. Further on, the impact of elevation-surface mass balance feedback, introduced via the MAR data, on future sea level rise is inspected. In our projections, we found the Greenland ice sheet to contribute between 1.9 and 13.0 cm to global sea level rise until the year 2100 and between 3.5 and 76.4 cm until the year 2300, including our simulated additional sea level rise due to elevation-surface mass balance feedback. Translated into additional sea level rise, the strength of this feedback in the year 2100 varies from 0.4 to 1.7 cm, and in the year 2300 it ranges from 1.7 to 21.8 cm. Additionally, taking the Helheim and Store glaciers as examples, we investigate the role of ocean warming and surface runoff change for the melting of outlet glaciers. It shows that ocean temperature and subglacial discharge are about equally important for the melting of the examined outlet glaciers.
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    Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise
    (Munich : EGU, 2012) Jørgensen, F.; Scheer, W.; Thomsen, S.; Sonnenborg, T.O.; Hinsby, K.; Wiederhold, H.; Schamper, C.; Burschil, T.; Roth, B.; Kirsch, R.; Auken, E.
    Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system), a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.
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    Thinning Can Reduce Losses in Carbon Use Efficiency and Carbon Stocks in Managed Forests Under Warmer Climate
    (Fort Collins, Colo. : [Verlag nicht ermittelbar], 2018) Collalti, Alessio; Trotta, Carlo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Ibrom, Andreas; Bond‐Lamberty, Ben; Grote, Ruediger; Vicca, Sara; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Migliavacca, Mirco; Veroustraete, Frank; Anav, Alessandro; Campioli, Matteo; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Šigut, Ladislav; Grieco, Elisa; Cescatti, Alessandro; Matteucci, Giorgio
    Forest carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio of net to gross primary productivity) represents the fraction of photosynthesis that is not used for plant respiration. Although important, it is often neglected in climate change impact analyses. Here we assess the potential impact of thinning on projected carbon cycle dynamics and implications for forest CUE and its components (i.e., gross and net primary productivity and plant respiration), as well as on forest biomass production. Using a detailed process-based forest ecosystem model forced by climate outputs of five Earth System Models under four representative climate scenarios, we investigate the sensitivity of the projected future changes in the autotrophic carbon budget of three representative European forests. We focus on changes in CUE and carbon stocks as a result of warming, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, and forest thinning. Results show that autotrophic carbon sequestration decreases with forest development, and the decrease is faster with warming and in unthinned forests. This suggests that the combined impacts of climate change and changing CO2 concentrations lead the forests to grow faster, mature earlier, and also die younger. In addition, we show that under future climate conditions, forest thinning could mitigate the decrease in CUE, increase carbon allocation into more recalcitrant woody pools, and reduce physiological-climate-induced mortality risks. Altogether, our results show that thinning can improve the efficacy of forest-based mitigation strategies and should be carefully considered within a portfolio of mitigation options.
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    Chemistry of new particle growth in mixed urban and biogenic emissions - Insights from CARES
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2014) Setyan, A.; Song, C.; Merkel, M.; Knighton, W.B.; Onasch, T.B.; Canagaratna, M.R.; Worsnop, D.R.; Wiedensohler, A.; Shilling, J.E.; Zhang, Q.
    Regional new particle formation and growth events (NPEs) were observed on most days over the Sacramento and western Sierra foothills area of California in June 2010 during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effect Study (CARES). Simultaneous particle measurements at both the T0 (Sacramento, urban site) and the T1 (Cool, rural site located ~40 km northeast of Sacramento) sites of CARES indicate that the NPEs usually occurred in the morning with the appearance of an ultrafine mode at ~15 nm (in mobility diameter, Dm, measured by a mobility particle size spectrometer operating in the range 10-858 nm) followed by the growth of this modal diameter to ~50 nm in the afternoon. These events were generally associated with southwesterly winds bringing urban plumes from Sacramento to the T1 site. The growth rate was on average higher at T0 (7.1 ± 2.7 nm h−1) than at T1 (6.2 ± 2.5 nm h−1), likely due to stronger anthropogenic influences at T0. Using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), we investigated the evolution of the size-resolved chemical composition of new particles at T1. Our results indicate that the growth of new particles was driven primarily by the condensation of oxygenated organic species and, to a lesser extent, ammonium sulfate. New particles appear to be fully neutralized during growth, consistent with high NH3 concentration in the region. Nitrogen-containing organic ions (i.e., CHN+, CH4N+, C2H3N+, and C2H4N+) that are indicative of the presence of alkyl-amine species in submicrometer particles enhanced significantly during the NPE days, suggesting that amines might have played a role in these events. Our results also indicate that the bulk composition of the ultrafine mode organics during NPEs was very similar to that of anthropogenically influenced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) observed in transported urban plumes. In addition, the concentrations of species representative of urban emissions (e.g., black carbon, CO, NOx, and toluene) were significantly higher whereas the photo-oxidation products of biogenic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) and the biogenically influenced SOA also increased moderately during the NPE days compared to the non-event days. These results indicate that the frequently occurring NPEs over the Sacramento and Sierra Nevada regions were mainly driven by urban plumes from Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay Area, and that the interaction of regional biogenic emissions with the urban plumes has enhanced the new particle growth. This finding has important implications for quantifying the climate impacts of NPEs on global scale.
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    Modelling Ag-particle activation and growth in a TSI WCPC model 3785
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2010) Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, E.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.
    In this work, we modelled activation and growth of silver particles in the water-operated TSI model 3785 water condensation particle counter (WCPC). Our objective was to investigate theoretically how various effects influence the counting efficiency of this CPC. Coupled fluid and particle dynamic processes were modelled with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT in combination with the Fine Particle Model (FPM) to obtain profiles of temperature, vapour concentration, nucleation rate, and particle size. We found that the counting efficiency of the TSI 3785 for small particles might be affected by the presence of larger particles. Moreover, homogeneous nucleation processes can significantly influence counting efficiency.
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    Ground-based noontime D-region electron density climatology over northern Norway
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2023) Renkwitz, Toralf; Sivakandan, Mani; Jaen, Juliana; Singer, Werner
    The bottom part of the Earth's ionosphere is the so-called D region, which is typically less dense than the upper regions. Despite the comparably lower electron density, the ionization state of the D region has a significant influence on signal absorption for propagating lower to medium radio frequencies. We present local noon climatologies of electron densities in the upper middle atmosphere (50-90km) at high latitudes as observed by an active radar experiment. The radar measurements cover 9 years (2014-2022) from the solar maximum of cycle 24 to the beginning of cycle 25. Reliable electron densities are derived by employing signal processing, applying interferometry methods, and applying the Faraday-International Reference Ionosphere (FIRI) model. For all years a consistent spring-fall asymmetry of the electron density pattern with a gradual increase during summer as well as a sharp decrease at the beginning of October was found. These findings are consistent with very low frequency (VLF) studies showing equivalent signatures for nearby propagation paths. It is suggested that the meridional circulation associated with downwelling in winter could cause enhanced electron densities through NO transport. However, this mechanism can not explain the reduction in electron density in early October.
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    Trend detection in river flow indices in Poland
    (Heidelberg : Springer, 2018) Piniewski, Mikołaj; Marcinkowski, Paweł; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.
    The issue of trend detection in long time series of river flow records is of vast theoretical interest and considerable practical relevance. Water management is based on the assumption of stationarity; hence, it is crucial to check whether taking this assumption is justified. The objective of this study is to analyse long-term trends in selected river flow indices in small- and medium-sized catchments with relatively unmodified flow regime (semi-natural catchments) in Poland. The examined indices describe annual and seasonal average conditions as well as annual extreme conditions—low and high flows. The special focus is on the spatial analysis of trends, carried out on a comprehensive, representative data set of flow gauges. The present paper is timely, as no spatially comprehensive studies (i.e. covering the entire Poland or its large parts) on trend detection in time series of river flow have been done in the recent 15 years or so. The results suggest that there is a strong random component in the river flow process, the changes are weak and the spatial pattern is complex. Yet, the results of trend detection in different indices of river flow in Poland show that there exists a spatial divide that seems to hold quite generally for various indices (annual, seasonal, as well as low and high flow). Decreases of river flow dominate in the northern part of the country and increases usually in the southern part. Stations in the central part show mostly ‘no trend’ results. However, the spatial gradient is apparent only for the data for the period 1981–2016 rather than for 1956–2016. It seems also that the magnitude of increases of river flow is generally lower than that of decreases.
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    Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr
    (Munich : EGU, 2012) Burschil, T.; Scheer, W.; Kirsch, R.; Wiederhold, H.
    Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr. Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM) for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields. The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification. We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole data reveals the complex geology of a glacially-affected island. A sound understanding of the subsurface structure and the compilation of a 3-D model is imperative and the basis for a groundwater flow model to predict climate change effects on future water resources.