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Now showing 1 - 10 of 397
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    Electrolytic Surface Treatment for Improved Adhesion between Carbon Fibre and Polycarbonate
    (Basel : MDPI, 2018) Kamps, Jan Henk; Henderson, Luke C.; Scheffler, Christina; Van der Heijden, Ruud; Simon, Frank; Bonizzi, Teena; Verghese, Nikhil
    To achieve good mechanical properties of carbon fibre-reinforced polycarbonate composites, the fibre-matrix adhesion must be dialled to an optimum level. The electrolytic surface treatment of carbon fibres during their production is one of the possible means of adapting the surface characteristics of the fibres. The production of a range of tailored fibres with varying surface treatments (adjusting the current, potential, and conductivity) was followed by contact angle, inverse gas chromatography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, which revealed a significant increase in polarity and hydroxyl, carboxyl, and nitrile groups on the fibre surface. Accordingly, an increase in the fibre-matrix interaction indicated by a higher interfacial shear strength was observed with the single fibre pull-out force-displacement curves. The statistical analysis identified the correlation between the process settings, fibre surface characteristics, and the performance of the fibres during single fibre pull-out testing.
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    Effect of Alloying Elements in Melt Spun Mg-alloys for Hydrogen Storage
    (São Carlos : SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, 2016) Rozenberg, Silvia; Saporiti, Fabiana; Lang, Julien; Audebert, Fernando; Botta, Pablo; Stoica, Mihai; Huot, Jacques; Eckert, Jürgen
    In this paper we report the effect of alloying elements on hydrogen storage properties of melt-spun Mg-based alloys. The base alloys Mg90Si10, Mg90Cu10, Mg65Cu35 (at%) were studied. We also investigated the effect of rare earths (using MM: mischmetal) and Al in Mg65Cu25Al10, Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys. All the melt-spun alloys without MM show a crystalline structure, and the Mg65Cu25MM10 and Mg65Cu10Al15MM10 alloys showed an amorphous and partially amorphous structure respectively. At 350˚C all the alloys had a crystalline structure during the hydrogen absorption-desorption tests. It was observed that Si and Cu in the binaries alloys hindered completely the activation of the hydrogen absorption. The partial substitution of Cu by MM or Al allowed activation. The combined substitution of Cu by MM and Al showed the best results with the fastest absorption and desorption kinetics, which suggests that this combination can be used for new Mg-alloys to improve hydrogen storage properties.
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    Magneto-Mechanical Coupling in Magneto-Active Elastomers
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Metsch, Philipp; Romeis, Dirk; Kalina, Karl A.; Raßloff, Alexander; Saphiannikova, Marina; Kästner, Markus
    In the present work, the magneto-mechanical coupling in magneto-active elastomers is investigated from two different modeling perspectives: a micro-continuum and a particle–interaction approach. Since both strategies differ significantly in their basic assumptions and the resolution of the problem under investigation, they are introduced in a concise manner and their capabilities are illustrated by means of representative examples. To motivate the application of these strategies within a hybrid multiscale framework for magneto-active elastomers, their interchangeability is then examined in a systematic comparison of the model predictions with regard to the magneto-deformation of chain-like helical structures in an elastomer surrounding. The presented results show a remarkable agreement of both modeling approaches and help to provide an improved understanding of the interactions in magneto-active elastomers with chain-like microstructures.
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    Author Correction: A combination of electrochemistry and mass spectrometry to monitor the interaction of reactive species with supported lipid bilayers (Scientific Reports, (2020), 10, 1, (18683), 10.1038/s41598-020-75514-7)
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2021) Ravandeh, M.; Kahlert, H.; Jablonowski, H.; Lackmann, J.-W.; Striesow, J.; Agmo Hernández, V.; Wende, K.
    Correction to: Scientific Reports, published online 29 October 2020
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    Ultrasmall SnO₂ nanocrystals: hot-bubbling synthesis, encapsulation in carbon layers and applications in high capacity Li-ion storage
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2014) Ding, Liping; He, Shulian; Miao, Shiding; Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Leubner, Susanne; Yan, Chenglin; Hickey, Stephen G.; Eychmüller, Alexander; Xu, Jinzhang; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Ultrasmall SnO2 nanocrystals as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been synthesized by bubbling an oxidizing gas into hot surfactant solutions containing Sn-oleate complexes. Annealing of the particles in N2 carbonifies the densely packed surface capping ligands resulting in carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2/C). Carbon encapsulation can effectively buffer the volume changes during the lithiation/delithiation process. The assembled SnO2/C thus deliver extraordinarily high reversible capacity of 908 mA·h·g−1 at 0.5 C as well as excellent cycling performance in the LIBs. This method demonstrates the great potential of SnO2/C nanoparticles for the design of high power LIBs.
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    Cation-cation clusters in ionic liquids: Cooperative hydrogen bonding overcomes like-charge repulsion
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Knorr, Anne; Ludwig, Ralf
    Direct spectroscopic evidence for H-bonding between like-charged ions is reported for the ionic liquid, 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. New infrared bands in the OH frequency range appear at low temperatures indicating the formation of H-bonded cation-cation clusters similar to those known for water and alcohols. Supported by DFT calculations, these vibrational bands can be assigned to attractive interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the cations. The repulsive Coulomb interaction is overcome by cooperative hydrogen bonding between ions of like charge. The transition energy from purely cation-anion interacting configurations to those including cation-cation H-bonds is determined to be 3–4 kJmol−1. The experimental findings and DFT calculations strongly support the concept of anti-electrostatic hydrogen bonds (AEHBs) as recently suggested by Weinhold and Klein. The like-charge configurations are kinetically stabilized with decreasing temperatures.
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    Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductivity, Redox Behavior and Thermochemical Expansion of Mn-Substituted 5YSZ as an Interlayer Material for Reversible Solid Oxide Cells
    (Basel : MDPI, 2021) Natoli, Alejandro; Arias-Serrano, Blanca I.; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Żurawska, Agnieszka; Frade, Jorge R.; Yaremchenko, Aleksey. A.
    Manganese-substituted 5 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (5YSZ) was explored as a prospective material for protective interlayers between electrolyte and oxygen electrodes in reversible solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells. [(ZrO2)0.95(Y2O3)0.05]1−x[MnOy]x (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) ceramics with cubic fluorite structure were sintered in air at 1600 °C. The characterization included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and dilatometry in controlled atmospheres, electrical conductivity measurements, and determination of oxygen-ion transference numbers by the electromotive force (EMF) technique. Mn-substituted 5YSZ solid solutions exhibit variable oxygen nonstoichiometry with manganese cations in a mixed 2+/3+ oxidation state under oxidizing conditions. Substitution by manganese gradually increases the extent of oxygen content variation on thermal/redox cycling, chemical contribution to thermal expansion and dimensional changes on reduction. It also deteriorates oxygen-ionic conductivity and improves p-type electronic conductivity under oxidizing conditions, leading to a gradual transformation from predominantly ionic to prevailing electronic transport with increasing x. Mn2+/3+→Mn2+ transformation under reducing atmospheres is accompanied by the suppression of electronic transport and an increase in ionic conductivity. All Mn-substituted 5YSZ ceramics are solid electrolytes under reducing conditions. Prolonged treatments in reducing atmospheres, however, promote microstructural changes at the surface of bulk ceramics and Mn exsolution. Mn-substituted 5YSZ with 0.05 ≤ x < 0.10 is considered the most suitable for the interlayer application, due to the best combination of relevant factors, including oxygen content variations, levels of ionic/electronic conductivity and thermochemical expansion.
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    Genotyping of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the United Arab Emirates
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Senok, Abiola; Nassar, Rania; Celiloglu, Handan; Nabi, Anju; Alfaresi, Mubarak; Weber, Stefan; Rizvi, Irfan; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Gawlik, Darius; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf
    Reports from Arabian Gulf countries have demonstrated emergence of novel methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. To address the lack of data from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), genetic characterisation of MRSA identified between December 2017 and August 2019 was conducted using DNA microarray-based assays. The 625 MRSA isolates studied were grouped into 23 clonal complexes (CCs) and assigned to 103 strains. CC5, CC6, CC22 and CC30 represented 54.2% (n/N = 339/625) of isolates with other common CCs being CC1, CC8, CC772, CC361, CC80, CC88. Emergence of CC398 MRSA, CC5-MRSA-IV Sri Lanka Clone and ST5/ST225-MRSA-II, Rhine-Hesse EMRSA/New York-Japan Clone in our setting was detected. Variants of pandemic CC8-MRSA-[IVa + ACME I] (PVL+) USA300 were detected and majority of CC772 strains were CC772-MRSA-V (PVL+), “Bengal- Bay Clone”. Novel MRSA strains identified include CC5-MRSA-V (edinA+), CC5-MRSA-[VT + fusC], CC5-MRSA-IVa (tst1+), CC5-MRSA-[V/VT + cas + fusC + ccrA/B-1], CC8-MRSA-V/VT, CC22-MRSA-[IV + fusC + ccrAA/(C)], CC45-MRSA-[IV + fusC + tir], CC80-MRSA-IVa, CC121-MRSA-V/VT, CC152-MRSA-[V + fusC] (PVL+). Although several strains harboured SCC-borne fusidic acid resistance (fusC) (n = 181), erythromycin/clindamycin resistance (ermC) (n = 132) and gentamicin resistance (aacA-aphD) (n = 179) genes, none harboured vancomycin resistance genes while mupirocin resistance gene mupR (n = 2) and cfr gene (n = 1) were rare. An extensive MRSA repertoire including CCs previously unreported in the region and novel strains which probably arose locally suggest an evolving MRSA landscape. © 2020, The Author(s).
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    Nonresonant Raman spectroscopy of isolated human retina samples complying with laser safety regulations for in vivo measurements
    (Bellingham, Wash. : SPIE, 2019) Stiebing, Clara; Schie, Iwan W.; Knorr, Florian; Schmitt, Michael; Keijzer, Nanda; Kleemann, Robert; Jahn, Izabella J.; Jahn, Martin; Kiliaan, Amanda J.; Ginner, Laurin; Lichtenegger, Antonia; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Popp, Jürgen
    Retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, are leading causes of vision impairment, increasing in incidence worldwide due to an aging society. If diagnosed early, most cases could be prevented. In contrast to standard ophthalmic diagnostic tools, Raman spectroscopy can provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical composition of the retina in a label-free manner. A proof of concept study of the applicability of nonresonant Raman spectroscopy for retinal investigations is presented. Raman imaging provides valuable insights into the molecular composition of an isolated ex vivo human retina sample by probing the entire molecular fingerprint, i.e., the lipid, protein, carotenoid, and nucleic acid content. The results are compared to morphological information obtained by optical coherence tomography of the sample. The challenges of in vivo Raman studies due to laser safety limitations and predefined optical parameters given by the eye itself are explored. An in-house built setup simulating the optical pathway in the human eye was developed and used to demonstrate that even under laser safety regulations and the above-mentioned optical restrictions, Raman spectra of isolated ex vivo human retinas can be recorded. The results strongly support that in vivo studies using nonresonant Raman spectroscopy are feasible and that these studies provide comprehensive molecular information of the human retina. © The Authors. Published by SPIE.
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    Modified wavelet analysis of ECoG-pattern as promising tool for detection of the blood–brain barrier leakage
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Runnova, Anastasiya; Zhuravlev, Maksim; Ukolov, Rodion; Blokhina, Inna; Dubrovski, Alexander; Lezhnev, Nikita; Sitnikova, Evgeniya; Saranceva, Elena; Kiselev, Anton; Karavaev, Anatoly; Selskii, Anton; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Jurgen
    A new approach for detection oscillatory patterns and estimation of their dynamics based by a modified CWT skeleton method is presented. The method opens up additional perspectives for the analysis of subtle changes in the oscillatory activity of complex nonstationary signals. The method was applied to analyze unique experimental signals obtained in usual conditions and after the non-invasive increase in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability in 10 male Wistar rats. The results of the wavelet-analysis of electrocorticography (ECoG) recorded in a normal physiological state and after an increase in the BBB permeability of animals demonstrate significant changes between these states during wakefulness of animals and an essential smoothing of these differences during sleep. Sleep is closely related to the processes of observed changes in the BBB permeability.