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    A new bifunctional hybrid nanostructure as an active platform for photothermal therapy and MR imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Khafaji, Mona; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Börrnert, Felix; Irajizad, Azam
    As a bi-functional cancer treatment agent, a new hybrid nanostructure is presented which can be used for photothermal therapy by exposure to one order of magnitude lower laser powers compared to similar nanostructures in addition to substantial enhancment in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. This gold-iron oxide hybrid nanostructure (GIHN) is synthesized by a cost-effective and high yield water-based approach. The GIHN is sheilded by PEG. Therefore, it shows high hemo and biocompatibility and more than six month stability. Alongside earlier nanostructures, the heat generation rate of GIHN is compareable with surfactnat-capped gold nanorods (GNRs). Two reasons are behind this enhancement: Firstly the distance between GNRs and SPIONs is adjusted in a way that the surface plasmon resonance of the new nanostructure is similar to bare GNRs and secondly the fraction of GNRs is raised in the hybrid nanostructure. GIHN is then applied as a photothermal agent using laser irradiation with power as low as 0.5−2 and only 32% of human breast adenocarcinoma cells could survive. The GIHN also acts as a dose-dependent transvers relaxation time (T2) MRI contrast agent. The results show that the GINH can be considered as a good candidate for multimodal photothermal therapy and MRI.
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    Highly Conductive, Stretchable, and Cell-Adhesive Hydrogel by Nanoclay Doping
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Tondera, Christoph; Akbar, Teuku Fawzul; Thomas, Alvin Kuriakose; Lin, Weilin; Werner, Carsten; Busskamp, Volker; Zhang, Yixin; Minev, Ivan R.
    Electrically conductive materials that mimic physical and biological properties of tissues are urgently required for seamless brain-machine interfaces. Here, a multinetwork hydrogel combining electrical conductivity of 26 S m-1 , stretchability of 800%, and tissue-like elastic modulus of 15 kPa with mimicry of the extracellular matrix is reported. Engineering this unique set of properties is enabled by a novel in-scaffold polymerization approach. Colloidal hydrogels of the nanoclay Laponite are employed as supports for the assembly of secondary polymer networks. Laponite dramatically increases the conductivity of in-scaffold polymerized poly(ethylene-3,4-diethoxy thiophene) in the absence of other dopants, while preserving excellent stretchability. The scaffold is coated with a layer containing adhesive peptide and polysaccharide dextran sulfate supporting the attachment, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells directly on the surface of conductive hydrogels. Due to its compatibility with simple extrusion printing, this material promises to enable tissue-mimetic neurostimulating electrodes.
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    Magnetization Dynamics of an Individual Single-Crystalline Fe-Filled Carbon Nanotube
    (Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2019) Lenz, Kilian; Narkowicz, Ryszard; Wagner, Kai; Reiche, Christopher F.; Körner, Julia; Schneider, Tobias; Kákay, Attila; Schultheiss, Helmut; Weissker, Uhland; Wolf, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Büchner, Bernd; Fassbender, Jürgen; Mühl, Thomas; Lindner, Jürgen
    The magnetization dynamics of individual Fe-filled multiwall carbon-nanotubes (FeCNT), grown by chemical vapor deposition, are investigated by microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy and corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Currently, only static magnetometry measurements are available. They suggest that the FeCNTs consist of a single-crystalline Fe nanowire throughout the length. The number and structure of the FMR lines and the abrupt decay of the spin-wave transport seen in BLS indicate, however, that the Fe filling is not a single straight piece along the length. Therefore, a stepwise cutting procedure is applied in order to investigate the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance lines as a function of the nanowire length. The results show that the FeCNT is indeed not homogeneous along the full length but is built from 300 to 400 nm long single-crystalline segments. These segments consist of magnetically high quality Fe nanowires with almost the bulk values of Fe and with a similar small damping in relation to thin films, promoting FeCNTs as appealing candidates for spin-wave transport in magnonic applications. © 2019 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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    Nesting-driven multipolar order in CeB6 from photoemission tomography
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Koitzsch, A.; Heming, N.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Portnichenko, P.Y.; Dukhnenko, A.V.; Shitsevalova, N.Y.; Filipov, V.B.; Lev, L.L.
    Some heavy fermion materials show so-called hidden-order phases which are invisible to many characterization techniques and whose microscopic origin remained controversial for decades. Among such hidden-order compounds, CeB6 is of model character due to its simple electronic configuration and crystal structure. Apart from more conventional antiferromagnetism, it shows an elusive phase at low temperatures, which is commonly associated with multipolar order. Here we show that this phase roots in a Fermi surface instability. This conclusion is based on a full 3D tomographic sampling of the electronic structure by angle-resolved photoemission and comparison with inelastic neutron scattering data. The hidden order is mediated by itinerant electrons. Our measurements will serve as a paradigm for the investigation of hidden-order phases in f-electron systems, but also generally for situations where the itinerant electrons drive orbital or spin order.
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    Optimized Deep Learning Model as a Basis for Fast UAV Mapping of Weed Species in Winter Wheat Crops
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2021) de Camargo, Tibor; Schirrmann, Michael; Landwehr, Niels; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Pflanz, Michael
    Weed maps should be available quickly, reliably, and with high detail to be useful for site-specific management in crop protection and to promote more sustainable agriculture by reducing pesticide use. Here, the optimization of a deep residual convolutional neural network (ResNet-18) for the classification of weed and crop plants in UAV imagery is proposed. The target was to reach sufficient performance on an embedded system by maintaining the same features of the ResNet-18 model as a basis for fast UAV mapping. This would enable online recognition and subsequent mapping of weeds during UAV flying operation. Optimization was achieved mainly by avoiding redundant computations that arise when a classification model is applied on overlapping tiles in a larger input image. The model was trained and tested with imagery obtained from a UAV flight campaign at low altitude over a winter wheat field, and classification was performed on species level with the weed species Matricaria chamomilla L., Papaver rhoeas L., Veronica hederifolia L., and Viola arvensis ssp. arvensis observed in that field. The ResNet-18 model with the optimized image-level prediction pipeline reached a performance of 2.2 frames per second with an NVIDIA Jetson AGX Xavier on the full resolution UAV image, which would amount to about 1.78 ha h−1 area output for continuous field mapping. The overall accuracy for determining crop, soil, and weed species was 94%. There were some limitations in the detection of species unknown to the model. When shifting from 16-bit to 32-bit model precision, no improvement in classification accuracy was observed, but a strong decline in speed performance, especially when a higher number of filters was used in the ResNet-18 model. Future work should be directed towards the integration of the mapping process on UAV platforms, guiding UAVs autonomously for mapping purpose, and ensuring the transferability of the models to other crop fields.
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    35 W continuous-wave Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber laser
    (Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press, 2020) Zhao, Yongguang; Wang, Li; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Jianlei; Song, Qingsong; Xu, Xiaodong; Liu, Ying; Shen, Deyuan; Xu, Jun; Mateos, Xavier; Loiko, Pavel; Wang, Zhengping; Xu, Xinguang; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin
    We report on a high-power Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber (SCF) laser inband pumped by a high-brightness Tm-fiber laser at 1908 nm. The Ho:YAG SCF grown by the micro-pulling-down technique exhibits a propagation loss of at. A continuous-wave output power of 35.2 W is achieved with a slope efficiency of 42.7%, which is to the best of our knowledge the highest power ever reported from an SCF-based laser in the 2 spectral range. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Cambridge University Press in association with Chinese Laser Press.
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    Topographical anisotropy and wetting of ground stainless steel surfaces
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2012) Calvimontes, A.; Mauermann, M.; Bellmann, C.
    Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.
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    Theoretical approach to resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in iron-based superconductors at the energy scale of the superconducting gap
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Marra, Pasquale; van den Brink, Jeroen; Sykora, Steffen
    We develop a phenomenological theory to predict the characteristic features of the momentum-dependent scattering amplitude in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the energy scale of the superconducting gap in iron-based super-conductors. Taking into account all relevant orbital states as well as their specific content along the Fermi surface we evaluate the charge and spin dynamical structure factors for the compounds LaOFeAs and LiFeAs, based on tight-binding models which are fully consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. We find a characteristic intensity redistribution between charge and spin dynamical structure factors which discriminates between sign-reversing and sign-preserving quasiparticle excitations. Consequently, our results show that RIXS spectra can distinguish between s± and s++ wave gap functions in the singlet pairing case. In addition, we find that an analogous intensity redistribution at small momenta can reveal the presence of a chiral p-wave triplet pairing.
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    Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young fluvial deposits of the Middle Elbe River Flood Plains using different age models
    (Warsaw : De Gruyter, 2014) Kunz, Alexander; Pflanz, Dorthe; Weniger, Tobias; Urban, Brigitte; Krüger, Frank; Chen, Yue-Gau
    In the last few decades optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has become an im-portant tool in geochronological studies. The great advantage of the method, i.e. dating the deposi-tional age of sediments directly, can be impaired by incomplete bleaching of grains. This can result in a scattered distribution of equivalent doses (DE), leading to incorrect estimation of the depositional age. Thoroughly tested protocols as well as good data analysis with adequate statistical methods are important to overcome this problem. In this study, samples from young fluvial sand and flood plain deposits from the Elbe River in northern Germany were investigated to compare its depositional ages from different age models with well-known historical dates. Coarse grain quartz (100-200 μm and 150-250 μm) and polymineral fine grains (4-11 μm) were dated using the single aliquot regenerative (SAR) dose protocol. The paleodose (DP) was calculated from the DE data set using different ap-proaches. Results were compared with the development of the Elbe River, which is well-documented by historical records and maps covering the last 1,000 years. Depending on the statistical approach it can be demonstrated that depositional ages significantly differ from the most likely depositional age. For the investigated coarse grain quartz samples all ages calculated from the MAM-3UL, including their uncertainties, are within the historical documented age. Results of the polymineral fine grain samples are overestimating the historically documented depositional age, indicating undetectable in-complete bleaching. This study shows the importance of using an adequate statistical approach to cal-culate reliable OSL ages from fluvial sediments. © 2013 Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland. All rights reserved.
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    Studies on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Vit 105 Bulk Metallic Glass
    (Lausanne : Frontiers Media S.A., 2020) Gebert, A.; Geissler, D.; Pilz, S.; Uhlemann, M.; Davani, F.A.; Hilke, S.; Rösner, H.; Wilde, G.
    The project “Stress Corrosion Cracking of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses” (SCC of Zr-BMGs) within PP1594 mainly dealt with mechanical–corrosive interactions and failure of this class of metastable materials. It focused on one of the most application-relevant zirconium (Zr)-BMG, Vit(reloy) 105, with composition Zr52.5Cu17.9Ni14.6Al10Ti5 (at.%). Even though this BMG is known as an extraordinary glass former, the metallurgical processing is still a critical issue. In contrast to conventional processing, i.e., arc melting of master alloy ingots from single constituents, a different route using binary pre-alloys for the master alloys production was applied and led to superior mechanical properties upon mechanical testing under tensile and three-point-bending (3PB) conditions in air. As a reference and for a detailed understanding of failure, fracture, and cracking of Zr-based BMG in air, notched specimen 3PB experiments with in situ microscopic observation were done and the still controversial interpretation of the mechanical behavior of BMG in the framework of fracture mechanics was addressed. The specimen from the in situ 3PB tests served for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations on the structural nature of shear bands in BMG on the atomistic scale. Altogether, complete crack paths could be observed and analyzed, and based on this, details of the shear band-driven crack growth are described. While in first SCC studies using a newly developed setup full cross section (3PB) bars were investigated, in recent in situ experiments, notched specimens were tested in 0.01 M NaCl, yielding strong evidence for a catastrophic failure due to hydrogen embrittlement (HE). The known susceptibility to pitting corrosion in halide-containing environments is only the initial stage for failure under SCC conditions. Once pitting is initiated, the local electrode potential is severely reduced. Further, the hydrolysis reaction of oxidized Zr4+ to zirconyl ions ZrO2+ during local BMG dissolution produces H+ and, thus, a local acidic environment that enables proton reduction and hydrogen absorption in the stressed BMG region. The peculiar failure and fracture surface characteristics as well as the proven local reduction of the pH value in the vicinity of the notch during in situ experiments clearly account for the proposed HE-SCC failure mechanism.