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Now showing 1 - 10 of 168
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    Enhanced tenacity of mycobacterial aerosols from necrotic neutrophils
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Pfrommer, E.; Dreier, C.; Gabriel, G.; Dallenga, T.; Reimer, R.; Schepanski, K.; Scherließ, R.; Schaible, U.E.; Gutsmann, T.
    The tuberculosis agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is primarily transmitted through air, but little is known about the tenacity of mycobacterium-containing aerosols derived from either suspensions or infected neutrophils. Analysis of mycobacterial aerosol particles generated from bacterial suspensions revealed an average aerodynamic diameter and mass density that may allow distant airborne transmission. The volume and mass of mycobacterial aerosol particles increased with elevated relative humidity. To more closely mimic aerosol formation that occurs in active TB patients, aerosols from mycobacterium-infected neutrophils were analysed. Mycobacterium-infected intact neutrophils showed a smaller particle size distribution and lower viability than free mycobacteria. In contrast, mycobacterium-infected necrotic neutrophils, predominant in M. tuberculosis infection, revealed particle sizes and viability rates similar to those found for free mycobacteria, but in addition, larger aggregates of viable mycobacteria were observed. Therefore, mycobacteria are shielded from environmental stresses in multibacillary aggregates generated from necrotic neutrophils, which allows improved tenacity but emphasizes short distance transmission between close contacts.
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    Giant refractometric sensitivity by combining extreme optical Vernier effect and modal interference
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2020) Gomes, André D.; Kobelke, Jens; Bierlich, Jörg; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando
    The optical Vernier effect consists of overlapping responses of a sensing and a reference interferometer with slightly shifted interferometric frequencies. The beating modulation thus generated presents high magnified sensitivity and resolution compared to the sensing interferometer, if the two interferometers are slightly out of tune with each other. However, the outcome of such a condition is a large beating modulation, immeasurable by conventional detection systems due to practical limitations of the usable spectral range. We propose a method to surpass this limitation by using a few-mode sensing interferometer instead of a single-mode one. The overlap response of the different modes produces a measurable envelope, whilst preserving an extremely high magnification factor, an order of magnification higher than current state-of-the-art performances. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of that method in the development of a giant sensitivity fibre refractometer with a sensitivity of around 500 µm/RIU (refractive index unit) and with a magnification factor over 850.
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    Radiobiological effects of wound fluid on breast cancer cell lines and human-derived tumor spheroids in 2D and microfluidic culture
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2022) Jeibouei, Shabnam; Hojat, Ali; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Aref, Amir Reza; Kalbasi, Alireza; Niazi, Vahid; Ajoudanian, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Farzaneh; Saadati, Fariba; Javadi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Shams, Forough; Moghaddam, Maryam; Karami, Farshid; Sharifi, Kazem; Moradian, Farid; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Zali, Hakimeh
    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) could abrogate cancer recurrences, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To clarify the effects of IORT-induced wound fluid on tumor progression, we treated breast cancer cell lines and human-derived tumor spheroids in 2D and microfluidic cell culture systems, respectively. The viability, migration, and invasion of the cells under treatment of IORT-induced wound fluid (WF-RT) and the cells under surgery-induced wound fluid (WF) were compared. Our findings showed that cell viability was increased in spheroids under both WF treatments, whereas viability of the cell lines depended on the type of cells and incubation times. Both WFs significantly increased sub-G1 and arrested the cells in G0/G1 phases associated with increased P16 and P21 expression levels. The expression level of Caspase 3 in both cell culture systems and for both WF-treated groups was significantly increased. Furthermore, our results revealed that although the migration was increased in both systems of WF-treated cells compared to cell culture media-treated cells, E-cadherin expression was significantly increased only in the WF-RT group. In conclusion, WF-RT could not effectively inhibit tumor progression in an ex vivo tumor-on-chip model. Moreover, our data suggest that a microfluidic system could be a suitable 3D system to mimic in vivo tumor conditions than 2D cell culture.
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    Direct Observation of Deformation in Microgel Filtration
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2019) Linkhorst, John; Rabe, Jonas; Hirschwald, Lukas T.; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias
    Colloidal filtration processes using porous membranes suffer from productivity loss due to colloidal matter retention and continuous build-up by the retained matter. Especially during filtration of soft matter, the deformation of the individual colloids that make up the filter cake may be significant; however, this deformation and its impact remain unresolved so far. Yet, understanding the deformation on the single colloid level as well as on the ensemble level is important to be able to deconvolute filter cake properties from resistance increase of the membrane either by simultaneous internal adsorption or blocking of pores. Here, we report on the compression of a filter cake by filtrating soft microgels in a microfluidic channel in front of a model membrane. To study the single colloid deformation amorphous and crystalline domains were built up in front of the membrane and visualized on-line using confocal fluorescence microscopy while adjusting the degree of permeation, i.e., the transmembrane flux. Results show locally pronounced asymmetric deformation in amorphous domains, while the microgels in colloidal crystals approached regular polyeder shape. Increasing the flux beyond the maximum colloid deformation results in non-isochoric microgel behavior. The presented methodology enables a realistic description of complex colloidal matter deposits during filtration.
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    Ultrathin niobium nanofilms on fiber optical tapers--a new route towards low-loss hybrid plasmonic modes
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Wieduwilt, Torsten; Tuniz, Alessandro; Linzen, Sven; Goerke, Sebastian; Dellith, Jan; Hübner, Uwe; Schmidt, Markus A.
    Due to the ongoing improvement in nanostructuring technology, ultrathin metallic nanofilms have recently gained substantial attention in plasmonics, e.g. as building blocks of metasurfaces. Typically, noble metals such as silver or gold are the materials of choice, due to their excellent optical properties, however they also possess some intrinsic disadvantages. Here, we introduce niobium nanofilms (~10 nm thickness) as an alternate plasmonic platform. We demonstrate functionality by depositing a niobium nanofilm on a plasmonic fiber taper and observe a dielectric-loaded niobium surface-plasmon excitation for the first time, with a modal attenuation of only 3–4 dB/mm in aqueous environment and a refractive index sensitivity up to 15 μm/RIU if the analyte index exceeds 1.42. We show that the niobium nanofilm possesses bulk optical properties, is continuous, homogenous and inert against any environmental influence, thus possessing several superior properties compared to noble metal nanofilms. These results demonstrate that ultrathin niobium nanofilms can serve as a new platform for biomedical diagnostics, superconducting photonics, ultrathin metasurfaces or new types of optoelectronic devices.
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    Detection of vancomycin resistances in enterococci within 3 1/2 Hours
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Schröder, U.-Ch.; Beleites, C.; Assmann, C.; Glaser, U.; Hübner, U.; Pfister, W.; Fritzsche, W.; Popp, J.; Neugebauer, U.
    Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) constitute a challenging problem in health care institutions worldwide. Novel methods to rapidly identify resistances are highly required to ensure an early start of tailored therapy and to prevent further spread of the bacteria. Here, a spectroscopy-based rapid test is presented that reveals resistances of enterococci towards vancomycin within 3.5 hours. Without any specific knowledge on the strain, VRE can be recognized with high accuracy in two different enterococci species. By means of dielectrophoresis, bacteria are directly captured from dilute suspensions, making sample preparation very easy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the trapped bacteria over a time span of two hours in absence and presence of antibiotics reveals characteristic differences in the molecular response of sensitive as well as resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Furthermore, the spectroscopic fingerprints provide an indication on the mechanisms of induced resistance in VRE.
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    A tale of shifting relations: East Asian summer and winter monsoon variability during the Holocene
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Kaboth-Bahr, Stefanie; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christian; Yamoah, Kweku A.; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Chuang, Chih-Kai; Löwemark, Ludvig; Wei, Kuo-Yen
    Understanding the dynamics between the East Asian summer (EASM) and winter monsoon (EAWM) is needed to predict their variability under future global warming scenarios. Here, we investigate the relationship between EASM and EAWM as well as the mechanisms driving their variability during the last 10,000 years by stacking marine and terrestrial (non-speleothem) proxy records from the East Asian realm. This provides a regional and proxy independent signal for both monsoonal systems. The respective signal was subsequently analysed using a linear regression model. We find that the phase relationship between EASM and EAWM is not time-constant and significantly depends on orbital configuration changes. In addition, changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation, Arctic sea-ice coverage, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Sun Spot numbers contributed to millennial scale changes in the EASM and EAWM during the Holocene. We also argue that the bulk signal of monsoonal activity captured by the stacked non-speleothem proxy records supports the previously argued bias of speleothem climatic archives to moisture source changes and/or seasonality.
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    Strong magnetic frustration and anti-site disorder causing spin-glass behavior in honeycomb Li2RhO3
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2015) Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu
    With large spin-orbit coupling, the electron configuration in d-metal oxides is prone to highly anisotropic exchange interactions and exotic magnetic properties. In 5d5 iridates, given the existing variety of crystal structures, the magnetic anisotropy can be tuned from antisymmetric to symmetric Kitaev-type, with interaction strengths that outsize the isotropic terms. By many-body electronic-structure calculations we here address the nature of the magnetic exchange and the intriguing spin-glass behavior of Li2RhO3, a 4d5 honeycomb oxide. For pristine crystals without Rh-Li site inversion, we predict a dimerized ground state as in the isostructural 5d5 iridate Li2IrO3, with triplet spin dimers effectively placed on a frustrated triangular lattice. With Rh-Li anti-site disorder, we explain the observed spin-glass phase as a superposition of different, nearly degenerate symmetry-broken configurations.
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    Critical current modulation induced by an electric field in superconducting tungsten-carbon nanowires
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Orús, Pablo; Fomin, Vladimir M.; De Teresa, José María; Córdoba, Rosa
    The critical current of a superconducting nanostructure can be suppressed by applying an electric field in its vicinity. This phenomenon is investigated throughout the fabrication and electrical characterization of superconducting tungsten-carbon (W-C) nanostructures grown by Ga+ focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). In a 45 nm-wide, 2.7 μm-long W-C nanowire, an increasing side-gate voltage is found to progressively reduce the critical current of the device, down to a full suppression of the superconducting state below its critical temperature. This modulation is accounted for by the squeezing of the superconducting current by the electric field within a theoretical model based on the Ginzburg–Landau theory, in agreement with experimental data. Compared to electron beam lithography or sputtering, the single-step FIBID approach provides with enhanced patterning flexibility and yields nanodevices with figures of merit comparable to those retrieved in other superconducting materials, including Ti, Nb, and Al. Exhibiting a higher critical temperature than most of other superconductors, in which this phenomenon has been observed, as well as a reduced critical value of the gate voltage required to fully suppress superconductivity, W-C deposits are strong candidates for the fabrication of nanodevices based on the electric field-induced superconductivity modulation.
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    Ocean rogue waves and their phase space dynamics in the limit of a linear interference model
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2016) Birkholz, Simon; Brée, Carsten; Veselić, Ivan; Demircan, Ayhan; Steinmeyer, Günter
    We reanalyse the probability for formation of extreme waves using the simple model of linear interference of a finite number of elementary waves with fixed amplitude and random phase fluctuations. Under these model assumptions no rogue waves appear when less than 10 elementary waves interfere with each other. Above this threshold rogue wave formation becomes increasingly likely, with appearance frequencies that may even exceed long-term observations by an order of magnitude. For estimation of the effective number of interfering waves, we suggest the Grassberger-Procaccia dimensional analysis of individual time series. For the ocean system, it is further shown that the resulting phase space dimension may vary, such that the threshold for rogue wave formation is not always reached. Time series analysis as well as the appearance of particular focusing wind conditions may enable an effective forecast of such rogue-wave prone situations. In particular, extracting the dimension from ocean time series allows much more specific estimation of the rogue wave probability.