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Now showing 1 - 10 of 135
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    Complement activation by carbon nanotubes and its influence on the phagocytosis and cytokine response by macrophages
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2014) Pondman, K.M.; Sobik, M.; Nayak, A.; Tsolaki, A.G.; Jäkel, A.; Flahaut, E.; Hampel, S.; ten Haken, B.; Sim, R.B.; Kishore, U.
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have promised a range of applications in biomedicine. Although influenced by the dispersants used, CNTs are recognized by the innate immune system, predominantly by the classical pathway of the complement system. Here, we confirm that complement activation by the CNT used continues up to C3 and C5, indicating that the entire complement system is activated including the formation of membrane-attack complexes. Using recombinant forms of the globular regions of human C1q (gC1q) as inhibitors of CNT-mediated classical pathway activation, we show that C1q, the first recognition subcomponent of the classical pathway, binds CNTs via the gC1q domain. Complement opsonisation of CNTs significantly enhances their uptake by U937 cells, with concomitant downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines in both U937 cells and human monocytes. We propose that CNT-mediated complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response. From the Clinical Editor: This study highlights the importance of the complement system in response to carbon nanontube administration, suggesting that the ensuing complement activation may cause recruitment of cellular infiltration, followed by phagocytosis without inducing a pro-inflammatory immune response.
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    On Indecomposable Polyhedra and the Number of Steiner Points
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2015) Goerigk, Nadja; Si, Hang
    The existence of indecomposable polyhedra, that is, the interior of every such polyhedron cannot be decomposed into a set of tetrahedra whose vertices are all of the given polyhedron, is well-known. However, the geometry and combinatorial structure of such polyhedra are much less studied. In this article, we investigate the structure of some well-known examples, the so-called Schönhardt polyhedron [10] and the Bagemihl's generalization of it [1], which will be called Bagemihl's polyhedra. We provide a construction of an additional point, so-called Steiner point, which can be used to decompose the Schönhardt and the Bagemihl's polyhedra. We then provide a construction of a larger class of three-dimensional indecomposable polyhedra which often appear in grid generation problems. We show that such polyhedra have the same combinatorial structure as the Schönhardt's and Bagemihl's polyhedra, but they may need more than one Steiner point to be decomposed. Given such a polyhedron with n ≥ 6 vertices, we show that it can be decomposed by adding at most interior Steiner points. We also show that this number is optimal in theworst case.
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    Modifications in aerosol physical, optical and radiative properties during heavy aerosol events over Dushanbe, Central Asia
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Rupakheti, Dipesh; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Yin, Xiufeng; Hofer, Julian; Rai, Mukesh; Hu, Yuling; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Kang, Shichang
    The location of Central Asia, almost at the center of the global dust belt region, makes it susceptible for dust events. The studies on atmospheric impact of dust over the region are very limited despite the large area occupied by the region and its proximity to the mountain regions (Tianshan, Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalayas, and Tibetan Plateau). In this study, we analyse and explain the modification in aerosols’ physical, optical and radiative properties during various levels of aerosol loading observed over Central Asia utilizing the data collected during 2010–2018 at the AERONET station in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Aerosol episodes were classified as strong anthropogenic, strong dust and extreme dust. The mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) during these three types of events was observed a factor of ~3, 3.5 and 6.6, respectively, higher than the mean AOD for the period 2010–2018. The corresponding mean fine-mode fraction was 0.94, 0.20 and 0.16, respectively, clearly indicating the dominance of fine-mode anthropogenic aerosol during the first type of events, whereas coarse-mode dust aerosol dominated during the other two types of events. This was corroborated by the relationships among various aerosol parameters (AOD vs. AE, and EAE vs. AAE, SSA and RRI). The mean aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at the top of the atmosphere (ARFTOA), the bottom of the atmosphere (ARFBOA), and in the atmosphere (ARFATM) were −35 ± 7, −73 ± 16, and 38 ± 17 Wm−2 during strong anthropogenic events, −48 ± 12, −85 ± 24, and 37 ± 15 Wm−2 during strong dust event, and −68 ± 19, −117 ± 38, and 49 ± 21 Wm−2 during extreme dust events. Increase in aerosol loading enhanced the aerosol-induced atmospheric heating rate to 0.5–1.6 K day−1 (strong anthropogenic events), 0.4–1.9 K day−1 (strong dust events) and 0.8–2.7 K day−1 (extreme dust events). The source regions of air masses to Dushanbe during the onset of such events are also identified. Our study contributes to the understanding of dust and anthropogenic aerosols, in particular the extreme events and their disproportionally high radiative impacts over Central Asia.
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    Prediction of the biogas production using GA and ACO input features selection method for ANN model
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2019) Beltramo, Tanja; Klocke, Michael; Hitzmann, Bernd
    This paper presents a fast and reliable approach to analyze the biogas production process with respect to the biogas production rate. The experimental data used for the developed models included 15 process variables measured at an agricultural biogas plant in Germany. In this context, the concentration of volatile fatty acids, total solids, volatile solids acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin, neutral detergent fibre, ammonium nitrogen, hydraulic retention time, and organic loading rate were used. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were established to predict the biogas production rate. An ant colony optimization and genetic algorithms were implemented to perform the variable selection. They identified the significant process variables, reduced the model dimension and improved the prediction capacity of the ANN models. The best prediction of the biogas production rate was obtained with an error of prediction of 6.24% and a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.9.
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    An extended hybrid input-output model applied to fossil- and bio-based plastics
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Jander, Wiebke
    Matrix augmentation method is developed further and described transparently for enabling more specific input-output analyses of bio- vs. fossil-based sectors. A number of economic and environmental effects of substitution can be estimated, compared, and managed. While the model was applied for the first time to the German plastics industry, it can be well integrated into existing bioeconomy monitorings to represent substitution in sectors and countries. • Original matrix augmentation method is described in much detail for the first time considering available data for bio- and fossil-based industries. • Particular attention is paid to balancing cost and benefit in model building so that indicators can be integrated in a continuous monitoring of the bioeconomy. Hence, industry data is prefered to process data whenever possible. • Input structures of bio-based imports are considered in single-region input-output analysis.
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    Amyloids: From molecular structure to mechanical properties
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2013) Schleeger, M.; Vandenakker, C.C.; Deckert-Gaudig, T.; Deckert, V.; Velikov, K.P.; Koenderink, G.; Bonn, M.
    Many proteins of diverse sequence, structure and function self-assemble into morphologically similar fibrillar aggregates known as amyloids. Amyloids are remarkable polymers in several respects. First of all, amyloids can be formed from proteins with very different amino acid sequences; the common denominator is that the individual proteins constituting the amyloid fold predominantly into a β-sheet structure. Secondly, the formation of the fibril occurs through non-covalent interactions between primarily the β-sheets, causing the monomers to stack into fibrils. The fibrils are remarkably robust, considering that the monomers are bound non-covalently. Finally, a common characteristic of fibrils is their unbranched, straight, fiber-like structure arising from the intertwining of the multiple β-sheet filaments. These remarkably ordered and stable nanofibrils can be useful as building blocks for protein-based functional materials, but they are also implicated in severe neurodegenerative diseases. The overall aim of this article is to highlight recent efforts aimed at obtaining insights into amyloid proteins on different length scales. Starting from molecular information on amyloids, single fibril properties and mechanical properties of networks of fibrils are described. Specifically, we focus on the self-assembly of amyloid protein fibrils composed of peptides and denatured model proteins, as well as the influence of inhibitors of fibril formation. Additionally, we will demonstrate how the application of recently developed vibrational spectroscopic techniques has emerged as a powerful approach to gain spatially resolved information on the structure-function relation of amyloids. While spectroscopy provides information on local molecular conformations and protein secondary structure, information on the single fibril level has been developed by diverse microscopic techniques. The approaches to reveal basic mechanical properties of single fibrils like bending rigidity, shear modulus, ultimate tensile strength and fracture behavior are illustrated. Lastly, mechanics of networks of amyloid fibrils, typically forming viscoelastic gels are outlined, with a focus on (micro-) rheological properties. The resulting fundamental insights are essential for the rational design of novel edible and biodegradable protein-based polymers, but also to devise therapeutic strategies to combat amyloid assembly and accumulation during pathogenic disorders.
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    The enhanced Sanov theorem and propagation of chaos
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2017) Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Friz, Peter K.; Maurelli, Mario; Slowik, Martin
    We establish a Sanov type large deviation principle for an ensemble of interacting Brownian rough paths. As application a large deviations for the (-layer, enhanced) empirical measure of weakly interacting diffusions is obtained. This in turn implies a propagation of chaos result in a space of rough paths and allows for a robust analysis of the particle system and its McKean–Vlasov type limit, as shown in two corollaries.
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    Peculiarities of electronic structure and composition in ultrasound milled silicon nanowires
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Parinova, E.V.; Pisliaruk, A.K.; Schleusener, A.; Koyuda, D.A.; Chumakov, R.G.; Lebedev, A.M.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Makarova, A.; Smirnov, D.; Sivakov, V.; Turishchev, S.Yu.
    The combined X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy approach was applied for the detailed electronic structure and composition studies of silicon nanoparticles produced by the ultrasound milling of heavily and lowly doped Si nanowires formed by metal-assisted wet chemical etching. The ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy and synchrotron based X-ray absorption near edges structure spectroscopy techniques were utilize to study the valence and conduction bands electronic structure together with developed surface phase composition qualitative analysis. Our achieved results based on the implemented surface sensitive techniques strongly suggest that nanoparticles under studies show a significant presence of the silicon suboxides depending on the pre-nature of initial Si wafers. The controlled variation of the Si nanoparticles surface composition and electronic structure, including band gap engineering, can open a new prospective for a wide range Si-based nanostructures application including the integration of such structures with organic or biological systems. © 2020
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    Methane emissions from the storage of liquid dairy manure: Influences of season, temperature and storage duration
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2021) Cárdenas, Aura; Ammon, Christian; Schumacher, Britt; Stinner, Walter; Herrmann, Christiane; Schneider, Marcel; Weinrich, Sören; Fischer, Peter; Amon, Thomas; Amon, Barbara
    Methane emissions from livestock manure are primary contributors to GHG emissions from agriculture and options for their mitigation must be found. This paper presents the results of a study on methane emissions from stored liquid dairy cow manure during summer and winter storage periods. Manure from the summer and winter season was stored under controlled conditions in barrels at ambient temperature to simulate manure storage conditions. Methane emissions from the manure samples from the winter season were measured in two time periods: 0 to 69 and 0 to 139 days. For the summer storage period, the experiments covered four time periods: from 0 to 70, 0 to 138, 0 to 209, and 0 to 279 continuous days, with probing every 10 weeks. Additionally, at the end of all storage experiments, samples were placed into eudiometer batch digesters, and their methane emissions were measured at 20 °C for another 60 days to investigate the potential effect of the aging of the liquid manure on its methane emissions. The experiment showed that the methane emissions from manure stored in summer were considerably higher than those from manure stored in winter. CH4 production started after approximately one month, reaching values of 0.061 kg CH4 kg−1 Volatile Solid (VS) and achieving high total emissions of 0.148 kg CH4 kg−1 VS (40 weeks). In winter, the highest emissions level was 0.0011 kg CH4 kg−1 VS (20 weeks). The outcomes of these experimental measurements can be used to suggest strategies for mitigating methane emissions from manure storage.
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    The complexity of surface acoustic wave fields used for microfluidic applications
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2020) Weser, R.; Winkler, A.; Weihnacht, M.; Menzel, S.; Schmidt, H.
    Using surface acoustic waves (SAW) for the agitation and manipulation of fluids and immersed particles or cells in lab-on-a-chip systems has been state of the art for several years. Basic tasks comprise fluid mixing, atomization of liquids as well as sorting and separation (or trapping) of particles and cells, e.g. in so-called acoustic tweezers. Even though the fundamental principles governing SAW excitation and propagation on anisotropic, piezoelectric substrates are well-investigated, the complexity of wave field effects including SAW diffraction, refraction and interference cannot be comprehensively simulated at this point of time with sufficient accuracy. However, the design of microfluidic actuators relies on a profound knowledge of SAW propagation, including superposition of multiple SAWs, to achieve the predestined functionality of the devices. Here, we present extensive experimental results of high-resolution analysis of the lateral distribution of the complex displacement amplitude, i.e. the wave field, alongside with the electrical S-parameters of the generating transducers. These measurements were carried out and are compared in setups utilizing travelling SAW (tSAW) excited by single interdigital transducer (IDT), standing SAW generated between two IDTs (1DsSAW, 1D acoustic tweezers) and between two pairs of IDTs (2DsSAW, 2D acoustic tweezers) with different angular alignment in respect to pure Rayleigh mode propagation directions and other practically relevant orientations. For these basic configurations, typically used to drive SAW-based microfluidics, the influence of common SAW phenomena including beam steering, coupling coefficient dispersion and diffraction on the resultant wave field is investigated. The results show how tailoring of the acoustic conditions, based on profound knowledge of the physical effects, can be achieved to finally realize a desired behavior of a SAW-based microacoustic-fluidic system. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.