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    Modified wavelet analysis of ECoG-pattern as promising tool for detection of the blood–brain barrier leakage
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Runnova, Anastasiya; Zhuravlev, Maksim; Ukolov, Rodion; Blokhina, Inna; Dubrovski, Alexander; Lezhnev, Nikita; Sitnikova, Evgeniya; Saranceva, Elena; Kiselev, Anton; Karavaev, Anatoly; Selskii, Anton; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Jurgen
    A new approach for detection oscillatory patterns and estimation of their dynamics based by a modified CWT skeleton method is presented. The method opens up additional perspectives for the analysis of subtle changes in the oscillatory activity of complex nonstationary signals. The method was applied to analyze unique experimental signals obtained in usual conditions and after the non-invasive increase in the blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability in 10 male Wistar rats. The results of the wavelet-analysis of electrocorticography (ECoG) recorded in a normal physiological state and after an increase in the BBB permeability of animals demonstrate significant changes between these states during wakefulness of animals and an essential smoothing of these differences during sleep. Sleep is closely related to the processes of observed changes in the BBB permeability.
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    Author Correction: Influence of plasma treatment on SiO2/Si and Si3N4/Si substrates for large-scale transfer of graphene
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Lukose, R.; Lisker, M.; Akhtar, F.; Fraschke, M.; Grabolla, T.; Mai, A.; Lukosius, M.
    The original version of this Article omitted an affiliation for M. Lisker. The correct affiliations for M. Lisker are listed below: IHP- Leibniz Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany Technical University of Applied Science Wildau, Hochschulring 1, 15745, Wildau, Germany The original Article and accompanying Supplementary Information file have been corrected.
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    Stable coherent mode-locking based on π pulse formation in single-section lasers
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Arkhipov, Rostislav; Pakhomov, Anton; Arkhipov, Mikhail; Babushkin, Ihar; Rosanov, Nikolay
    Here we consider coherent mode-locking (CML) regimes in single-section cavity lasers, taking place for pulse durations less than atomic population and phase relaxation times, which arise due to coherent Rabi oscillations of the atomic inversion. Typically, CML is introduced for lasers with two sections, the gain and absorber ones. Here we show that, for certain combination of the cavity length and relaxation parameters, a very stable CML in a laser, containing only gain section, may arise. The mode-locking is unconditionally self-starting and appears due to balance of intra-pulse de-excitation and slow interpulse-scale pump-induced relaxation processes. We also discuss the scaling of the system to shorter pulse durations, showing a possibility of mode-locking for few-cycle pulses.
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    Particle movements provoke avalanche-like compaction in soft colloid filter cakes
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Lüken, Arne; Stüwe, Lucas; Lohaus, Johannes; Linkhorst, John; Wessling, Matthias
    During soft matter filtration, colloids accumulate in a compressible porous cake layer on top of the membrane surface. The void size between the colloids predominantly defines the cake-specific permeation resistance and the corresponding filtration efficiency. While higher fluxes are beneficial for the process efficiency, they compress the cake and increase permeation resistance. However, it is not fully understood how soft particles behave during cake formation and how their compression influences the overall cake properties. This study visualizes the formation and compression process of soft filter cakes in microfluidic model systems. During cake formation, we analyze single-particle movements inside the filter cake voids and how they interact with the whole filter cake morphology. During cake compression, we visualize reversible and irreversible compression and distinguish the two phenomena. Finally, we confirm the compression phenomena by modeling the soft particle filter cake using a CFD-DEM approach. The results underline the importance of considering the compression history when describing the filter cake morphology and its related properties. Thus, this study links single colloid movements and filter cake compression to the overall cake behavior and narrows the gap between single colloid events and the filtration process.
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    A tale of shifting relations: East Asian summer and winter monsoon variability during the Holocene
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Kaboth-Bahr, Stefanie; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christian; Yamoah, Kweku A.; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Chuang, Chih-Kai; Löwemark, Ludvig; Wei, Kuo-Yen
    Understanding the dynamics between the East Asian summer (EASM) and winter monsoon (EAWM) is needed to predict their variability under future global warming scenarios. Here, we investigate the relationship between EASM and EAWM as well as the mechanisms driving their variability during the last 10,000 years by stacking marine and terrestrial (non-speleothem) proxy records from the East Asian realm. This provides a regional and proxy independent signal for both monsoonal systems. The respective signal was subsequently analysed using a linear regression model. We find that the phase relationship between EASM and EAWM is not time-constant and significantly depends on orbital configuration changes. In addition, changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning circulation, Arctic sea-ice coverage, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Sun Spot numbers contributed to millennial scale changes in the EASM and EAWM during the Holocene. We also argue that the bulk signal of monsoonal activity captured by the stacked non-speleothem proxy records supports the previously argued bias of speleothem climatic archives to moisture source changes and/or seasonality.
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    Insolation-paced sea level and sediment flux during the early Pleistocene in Southeast Asia
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Vaucher, Romain; Dashtgard, Shahin E.; Horng, Chorng-Shern; Zeeden, Christian; Dillinger, Antoine; Pan, Yu-Yen; Setiaji, Romy A.; Chi, Wen-Rong; Löwemark, Ludvig
    Global marine archives from the early Pleistocene indicate that glacial-interglacial cycles, and their corresponding sea-level cycles, have predominantly a periodicity of ~ 41 kyrs driven by Earth’s obliquity. Here, we present a clastic shallow-marine record from the early Pleistocene in Southeast Asia (Cholan Formation, Taiwan). The studied strata comprise stacked cyclic successions deposited in offshore to nearshore environments in the paleo-Taiwan Strait. The stratigraphy was compared to both a δ18O isotope record of benthic foraminifera and orbital parameters driving insolation at the time of deposition. Analyses indicate a strong correlation between depositional cycles and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, which is precession-dominated with an obliquity component. Our results represent geological evidence of precession-dominated sea-level fluctuations during the early Pleistocene, independent of a global ice-volume proxy. Preservation of this signal is possible due to the high-accommodation creation and high-sedimentation rate in the basin enhancing the completeness of the stratigraphic record.
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    Monsoon forced evolution of savanna and the spread of agro-pastoralism in peninsular India
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Riedel, Nils; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Marwan, Norbert; Poretschkin, Constantin; Basavaiah, Nathani; Menzel, Philip; Ratnam, Jayashree; Prasad, Sushma; Sachse, Dirk; Sankaran, Mahesh; Sarkar, Saswati; Stebich, Martina
    An unresolved issue in the vegetation ecology of the Indian subcontinent is whether its savannas, characterized by relatively open formations of deciduous trees in C4-grass dominated understories, are natural or anthropogenic. Historically, these ecosystems have widely been regarded as anthropogenic-derived, degraded descendants of deciduous forests. Despite recent work showing that modern savannas in the subcontinent fall within established bioclimatic envelopes of extant savannas elsewhere, the debate persists, at least in part because the regions where savannas occur also have a long history of human presence and habitat modification. Here we show for the first time, using multiple proxies for vegetation, climate and disturbances from high-resolution, well-dated lake sediments from Lonar Crater in peninsular India, that neither anthropogenic impact nor fire regime shifts, but monsoon weakening during the past ~ 6.0 kyr cal. BP, drove the expansion of savanna at the expense of forests in peninsular India. Our results provide unambiguous evidence for a climate-induced origin and spread of the modern savannas of peninsular India at around the mid-Holocene. We further propose that this savannization preceded and drove the introduction of agriculture and development of sedentism in this region, rather than vice-versa as has often been assumed.
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    Observation of direction instability in a fiber ring laser
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Hartung, Alexander; Pratiwi, Arni Candra; Jäger, Matthias
    We report on the observation of a new phenomenon occurring in a fiber ring laser. This phenomenon is about the transition from an initially bidirectional emission of a reciprocal fiber ring laser to a unidirectional emission at a certain pump power threshold. In addition, the final direction is not predefined but appears to be randomly chosen every time the threshold is exceeded. Therefore, we term this new phenomenon direction instability. Furthermore, we provide a first discussion of how the instability threshold is influenced by the length and the loss of the cavity. We show that the threshold follows a power times length scaling, indicating a nonlinear origin.
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    Influence of plasma treatment on SiO2/Si and Si3N4/Si substrates for large-scale transfer of graphene
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Lukose, R.; Lisker, M.; Akhtar, F.; Fraschke, M.; Grabolla, T.; Mai, A.; Lukosius, M.
    One of the limiting factors of graphene integration into electronic, photonic, or sensing devices is the unavailability of large-scale graphene directly grown on the isolators. Therefore, it is necessary to transfer graphene from the donor growth wafers onto the isolating target wafers. In the present research, graphene was transferred from the chemical vapor deposited 200 mm Germanium/Silicon (Ge/Si) wafers onto isolating (SiO2/Si and Si3N4/Si) wafers by electrochemical delamination procedure, employing poly(methylmethacrylate) as an intermediate support layer. In order to influence the adhesion properties of graphene, the wettability properties of the target substrates were investigated in this study. To increase the adhesion of the graphene on the isolating surfaces, they were pre-treated with oxygen plasma prior the transfer process of graphene. The wetting contact angle measurements revealed the increase of the hydrophilicity after surface interaction with oxygen plasma, leading to improved adhesion of the graphene on 200 mm target wafers and possible proof-of-concept development of graphene-based devices in standard Si technologies.
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    Decay radius of climate decision for solar panels in the city of Fresno, USA
    ([London] : Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature, 2021) Barton-Henry, Kelsey; Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders
    To design incentives towards achieving climate mitigation targets, it is important to understand the mechanisms that affect individual climate decisions such as solar panel installation. It has been shown that peer effects are important in determining the uptake and spread of household photovoltaic installations. Due to coarse geographical data, it remains unclear whether this effect is generated through geographical proximity or within groups exhibiting similar characteristics. Here we show that geographical proximity is the most important predictor of solar panel implementation, and that peer effects diminish with distance. Using satellite imagery, we build a unique geo-located dataset for the city of Fresno to specify the importance of small distances. Employing machine learning techniques, we find the density of solar panels within the shortest measured radius of an address is the most important factor in determining the likelihood of that address having a solar panel. The importance of geographical proximity decreases with distance following an exponential curve with a decay radius of 210 meters. The dependence is slightly more pronounced in low-income groups. These findings support the model of distance-related social diffusion, and suggest priority should be given to seeding panels in areas where few exist.