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Now showing 1 - 10 of 521
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    Observation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities and gravity waves in the summer mesopause above Andenes in Northern Norway
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2018) Stober, Gunter; Sommer, Svenja; Schult, Carsten; Latteck, Ralph; Chau, Jorge L.
    We present observations obtained with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) to investigate short-period wave-like features using polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) as a tracer for the neutral dynamics. We conducted a multibeam experiment including 67 different beam directions during a 9-day campaign in June 2013. We identified two Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) events from the signal morphology of PMSE. The MAARSY observations are complemented by collocated meteor radar wind data to determine the mesoscale gravity wave activity and the vertical structure of the wind field above the PMSE. The KHIs occurred in a strong shear flow with Richardson numbers Ri <0.25. In addition, we observed 15 wave-like events in our MAARSY multibeam observations applying a sophisticated decomposition of the radial velocity measurements using volume velocity processing. We retrieved the horizontal wavelength, intrinsic frequency, propagation direction, and phase speed from the horizontally resolved wind variability for 15 events. These events showed horizontal wavelengths between 20 and 40km, vertical wavelengths between 5 and 10km, and rather high intrinsic phase speeds between 45 and 85ms−1 with intrinsic periods of 5–10min.
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    Promoting abnormal grain growth in Fe-based shape memory alloys through compositional adjustments
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2019) Vollmer, M.; Arold, T.; Kriegel, M.J.; Klemm, V.; Degener, S.; Freudenberger, J.; Niendorf, T.
    Iron-based shape memory alloys are promising candidates for large-scale structural applications due to their cost efficiency and the possibility of using conventional processing routes from the steel industry. However, recently developed alloy systems like Fe–Mn–Al–Ni suffer from low recoverability if the grains do not completely cover the sample cross-section. To overcome this issue, here we show that small amounts of titanium added to Fe–Mn–Al–Ni significantly enhance abnormal grain growth due to a considerable refinement of the subgrain sizes, whereas small amounts of chromium lead to a strong inhibition of abnormal grain growth. By tailoring and promoting abnormal grain growth it is possible to obtain very large single crystalline bars. We expect that the findings of the present study regarding the elementary mechanisms of abnormal grain growth and the role of chemical composition can be applied to tailor other alloy systems with similar microstructural features.
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    Dynamic volume magnetic domain wall imaging in grain oriented electrical steel at power frequencies with accumulative high-frame rate neutron dark-field imaging
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Harti, R.P.; Strobl, M.; Schäfer, R.; Kardjilov, N.; Tremsin, A.S.; Grünzweig, C.
    The mobility of magnetic domains forms the link between the basic physical properties of a magnetic material and its global characteristics such as permeability and saturation field. Most commonly, surface domain structure are studied using magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The limited information depth of approx. 20 nanometers, however, allows only for an indirect interpretation of the internal volume domain structures. Here we show how accumulative high-frame rate dynamic neutron dark-field imaging is able for the first time to visualize the dynamic of the volume magnetic domain structures in grain oriented electrical steel laminations at power frequencies. In particular we studied the volume domain structures with a spatial resolution of ∼100 μm and successfully quantified domain sizes, wall velocities, domain annihilation and its duration and domain wall multiplication in real time recordings at power frequencies of 10, 25 and 50 Hz with ±262.5 A/m and ±525 A/m (peak to peak) applied field.
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    Fe1-xNix alloy nanoparticles encapsulated inside carbon nanotubes: Controlled synthesis, structure and magnetic properties
    (Basel : MDPI AG, 2018) Ghunaim, R.; Damm, C.; Wolf, D.; Lubk, A.; Büchner, B.; Mertig, M.; Hampel, S.
    In the present work, different synthesis procedures have been demonstrated to fill carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Fe1-xNix alloy nanoparticles (x = 0.33, 0.5). CNTs act as templates for the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles, and provide a protective shield against oxidation as well as prevent nanoparticles agglomeration. By variation of the reaction parameters, the purity of the samples, degree of filling, the composition and size of filling nanoparticles have been tailored and therefore the magnetic properties. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bright-field (BF) TEM tomography, X-ray powder diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Fe1-x Nix-filled CNTs show a huge enhancement in the coercive fields compared to the corresponding bulk materials, which make them excellent candidates for several applications such as magnetic storage devices.
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    Increasing the performance of a superconducting spin valve using a Heusler alloy
    (Frankfurt am Main : Beilstein-Institut zur Förderung der Chemischen Wissenschaften, 2018) Kamashev, A.A.; Validov, A.A.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V.; Büchner, B.; Fominov, Y.V.; Garifullin, I.A.
    We have studied superconducting properties of spin-valve thin-layer heterostructures CoOx/F1/Cu/F2/Cu/Pb in which the ferromagnetic F1 layer was made of Permalloy while for the F2 layer we have taken a specially prepared film of the Heusler alloy Co2Cr1-xFexAl with a small degree of spin polarization of the conduction band. The heterostructures demonstrate a significant superconducting spin-valve effect, i.e., a complete switching on and offof the superconducting current flowing through the system by manipulating the mutual orientations of the magnetization of the F1 and F2 layers. The magnitude of the effect is doubled in comparison with the previously studied analogous multilayers with the F2 layer made of the strong ferromagnet Fe. Theoretical analysis shows that a drastic enhancement of the switching effect is due to a smaller exchange field in the heterostructure coming from the Heusler film as compared to Fe. This enables to approach an almost ideal theoretical magnitude of the switching in the Heusler-based multilayer with a F2 layer thickness of ca. 1 nm. © 2018 Kamashev et al.
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    Characterisation of a novel composite SCCmec-SCCfus element in an emerging Staphylococcus aureus strain from the Arabian Gulf region
    (San Francisco : Public Library of Science, 2019) Senok, Abiola; Slickers, Peter; Hotzel, Helmut; Boswihi, Samar; Braun, Sascha D.; Gawlik, Darius; Müller, Elke; Nabi, Anju; Nassar, Rania; Nitschke, Hedda; Reißig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Mafofo, Joseph; Somili, Ali M.; Udo, Edet; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan
    Fusidic acid is a steroid antibiotic known since the 1960s. It is frequently used in topical preparations, i.e., ointments, for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. There is an increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains that harbour plasmid-borne fusB/far1 or fusC that is localised on SCC elements. In this study we examined a series of related CC30-MRSA isolates from the Arabian Gulf countries that presented with SCCmec elements and fusC, including a variant that—to the best of our knowledge—has not yet formally been described. It consisted of a class B mec complex and ccrA/B-4 genes. The fusidic acid resistance gene fusC was present, but contrary to the previously sequenced element of HDE288, it was not accompanied by tirS. This element was identified in CC30 MRSA from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates that usually also harbour the Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes. It was also identified in CC8 and ST834 isolates. In addition, further CC30 MRSA strains with other SCCmec VI elements harbouring fusC were found to circulate in the Arabian Gulf region. It can be assumed that MRSA strains with SCCmec elements that include fusC have a selective advantage in both hospital and community settings warranting a review of the use of topical antibiotics and indicating the necessity of reducing over-the-counter sale of antibiotics, including fusidic acid, without prescription.Fusidic acid is a steroid antibiotic known since the 1960s. It is frequently used in topical preparations, i.e., ointments, for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. There is an increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains that harbour plasmid-borne fusB/far1 or fusC that is localised on SCC elements. In this study we examined a series of related CC30-MRSA isolates from the Arabian Gulf countries that presented with SCCmec elements and fusC, including a variant that—to the best of our knowledge—has not yet formally been described. It consisted of a class B mec complex and ccrA/B-4 genes. The fusidic acid resistance gene fusC was present, but contrary to the previously sequenced element of HDE288, it was not accompanied by tirS. This element was identified in CC30 MRSA from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates that usually also harbour the Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes. It was also identified in CC8 and ST834 isolates. In addition, further CC30 MRSA strains with other SCCmec VI elements harbouring fusC were found to circulate in the Arabian Gulf region. It can be assumed that MRSA strains with SCCmec elements that include fusC have a selective advantage in both hospital and community settings warranting a review of the use of topical antibiotics and indicating the necessity of reducing over-the-counter sale of antibiotics, including fusidic acid, without prescription.
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    Ordered states in the Kitaev-Heisenberg model: From 1D chains to 2D honeycomb
    (London : Nature Publishing Group, 2018) Agrapidis, Cliò Efthimia; van den Brink, Jeroen; Nishimoto, Satoshi
    We study the ground state of the 1D Kitaev-Heisenberg (KH) model using the density-matrix renormalization group and Lanczos exact diagonalization methods. We obtain a rich ground-state phase diagram as a function of the ratio between Heisenberg (J = cosϕ) and Kitaev (K = sinϕ) interactions. Depending on the ratio, the system exhibits four long-range ordered states: ferromagnetic-z, ferromagnetic-xy, staggered-xy, Néel-z, and two liquid states: Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and spiral-xy. The two Kitaev points ϕ=π2 and φ=3π2 are singular. The ϕ-dependent phase diagram is similar to that for the 2D honeycomb-lattice KH model. Remarkably, all the ordered states of the honeycomb-lattice KH model can be interpreted in terms of the coupled KH chains. We also discuss the magnetic structure of the K-intercalated RuCl3, a potential Kitaev material, in the framework of the 1D KH model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the low-lying excitations of the 1D KH Hamiltonian can be explained within the combination of the known six-vertex model and spin-wave theory.
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    ConsensusPrime—A Bioinformatic Pipeline for Ideal Consensus Primer Design
    (Basel : MDPI, 2022) Collatz, Maximilian; Braun, Sascha D.; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf
    Background: High-quality oligonucleotides for molecular amplification and detection procedures of diverse target sequences depend on sequence homology. Processing input sequences and identifying homogeneous regions in alignments can be carried out by hand only if they are small and contain sequences of high similarity. Finding the best regions for large and inhomogeneous alignments needs to be automated. Results: The ConsensusPrime pipeline was developed to sort out redundant and technical interfering data in multiple sequence alignments and detect the most homologous regions from multiple sequences. It automates the prediction of optimal consensus primers for molecular analytical and sequence-based procedures/assays. Conclusion: ConsensusPrime is a fast and easy-to-use pipeline for predicting optimal consensus primers that is executable on local systems without depending on external resources and web services. An implementation in a Docker image ensures platform-independent executability and installability despite the combination of multiple programs. The source code and installation instructions are publicly available on GitHub.
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    3,3′-Dimethyl-1,1′-methyl­enediimidazolium tetra­bromido­cobaltate(II)
    (Chester : IUCr, 2018) Peppel, Tim; Spannenberg, Anke
    The title compound, (C9H14N4)[CoBr4], was obtained as single crystals directly in very low yield as a side product in the reaction of 1,1′-bis­(1-methyl­imidazolium)acetate bromide and CoBr2. The title compound consists of an imidazolium-based dication and a tetra­bromido­cobaltate(II) complex anion, which are connected via C—H...Br inter­actions in the crystal. The dihedral angle between the imidazolium rings in the cation is 72.89 (16)°. The CoII ion in the anion is coordinated tetra­hedrally by four bromide ligands [Co—Br = 2.4025 (5)–2.4091 (5) Å and Br—Co—Br = 106.224 (17)–113.893 (17)°]. The compound exhibits a high melting point (>300°C) and is a light-blue solid under ambient conditions.
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    The sensitivity of the colour of dust in MSG-SEVIRI Desert Dust infrared composite imagery to surface and atmospheric conditions
    (Göttingen : Copernicus GmbH, 2019) Banks, J.R.; Hünerbein, A.; Heinold, B.; Brindley, H.E.; Deneke, H.; Schepanski, K.
    Infrared "Desert Dust" composite imagery taken by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI), onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series of satellites above the equatorial East Atlantic, has been widely used for more than a decade to identify and track the presence of dust storms from and over the Sahara Desert, the Middle East, and southern Africa. Dust is characterised by distinctive pink colours in the Desert Dust false-colour imagery; however, the precise colour is influenced by numerous environmental properties, such as the surface thermal emissivity and skin temperature, the atmospheric water vapour content, the quantity and height of dust in the atmosphere, and the infrared optical properties of the dust itself. For this paper, simulations of SEVIRI infrared measurements and imagery have been performed using a modelling system, which combines dust concentrations simulated by the aerosol transport model COSMO-MUSCAT (COSMO: COnsortium for Small-scale MOdelling; MUSCAT: MUltiScale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model) with radiative transfer simulations from the RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TOVS) model. Investigating the sensitivity of the synthetic infrared imagery to the environmental properties over a 6-month summertime period from 2011 to 2013, it is confirmed that water vapour is a major control on the apparent colour of dust, obscuring its presence when the moisture content is high. Of the three SEVIRI channels used in the imagery (8.7, 10.8, and 12.0 μm), the channel at 10.8 μm has the highest atmospheric transmittance and is therefore the most sensitive to the surface skin temperature. A direct consequence of this sensitivity is that the background desert surface exhibits a strong diurnal cycle in colour, with light blue colours possible during the day and purple hues prevalent at night. In dusty scenes, the clearest pink colours arise from high-altitude dust in dry atmospheres. Elevated dust influences the dust colour primarily by reducing the contrast in atmospheric transmittance above the dust layer between the SEVIRI channels at 10.8 and 12.0 μm, thereby boosting red and pink colours in the imagery. Hence, the higher the dust altitude, the higher the threshold column moisture needed for dust to be obscured in the imagery: for a sample of dust simulated to have an aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm of 2-3 at an altitude of 3-4 km, the characteristic colour of the dust may only be impaired when the total column water vapour is particularly moist ('39 mm). Meanwhile, dust close to the surface (altitude < 1 km) is only likely to be apparent when the atmosphere is particularly dry and when the surface is particularly hot, requiring column moisture/13 mm and skin temperatures '314 K, and is highly unlikely to be apparent when the skin temperature is/300 K. Such low-altitude dust will regularly be almost invisible within the imagery, since it will usually be beneath much of the atmospheric water vapour column. It is clear that the interpretation of satellite-derived dust imagery is greatly aided by knowledge of the background environment.