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Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
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    Understanding Class Representations: An Intrinsic Evaluation of Zero-Shot Text Classification
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Hoppe, Fabian; Dessì, Danilo; Sack, Harald; Alam, Mehwish; Buscaldi, Davide; Cochez, Michael; Osborne, Francesco; Reforgiato Recupero, Diego; Sack, Harald
    Frequently, Text Classification is limited by insufficient training data. This problem is addressed by Zero-Shot Classification through the inclusion of external class definitions and then exploiting the relations between classes seen during training and unseen classes (Zero-shot). However, it requires a class embedding space capable of accurately representing the semantic relatedness between classes. This work defines an intrinsic evaluation based on greater-than constraints to provide a better understanding of this relatedness. The results imply that textual embeddings are able to capture more semantics than Knowledge Graph embeddings, but combining both modalities yields the best performance.
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    Steps towards a Dislocation Ontology for Crystalline Materials
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Ihsan, Ahmad Zainul; Dessì, Danilo; Alam, Mehwish; Sack, Harald; Sandfeld, Stefan; García-Castro, Raúl; Davies, John; Antoniou, Grigoris; Fortuna, Carolina
    The field of Materials Science is concerned with, e.g., properties and performance of materials. An important class of materials are crystalline materials that usually contain “dislocations" - a line-like defect type. Dislocation decisively determine many important materials properties. Over the past decades, significant effort was put into understanding dislocation behavior across different length scales both with experimental characterization techniques as well as with simulations. However, for describing such dislocation structures there is still a lack of a common standard to represent and to connect dislocation domain knowledge across different but related communities. An ontology offers a common foundation to enable knowledge representation and data interoperability, which are important components to establish a “digital twin". This paper outlines the first steps towards the design of an ontology in the dislocation domain and shows a connection with the already existing ontologies in the materials science and engineering domain.
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    DoMoRe – A recommender system for domain modeling
    (Setúbal : SciTePress, 2018) Agt-Rickauer, Henning; Kutsche, Ralf-Detlef; Sack, Harald; Hammoudi, Slimane; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Selic, Bran
    Domain modeling is an important activity in early phases of software projects to achieve a shared understanding of the problem field among project participants. Domain models describe concepts and relations of respective application fields using a modeling language and domain-specific terms. Detailed knowledge of the domain as well as expertise in model-driven development is required for software engineers to create these models. This paper describes DoMoRe, a system for automated modeling recommendations to support the domain modeling process. We describe an approach in which modeling benefits from formalized knowledge sources and information extraction from text. The system incorporates a large network of semantically related terms built from natural language data sets integrated with mediator-based knowledge base querying in a single recommender system to provide context-sensitive suggestions of model elements.
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    Temporal Evolution of the Migration-related Topics on Social Media
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Chen, Yiyi; Gesese, Genet Asefa; Sack, Harald; Alam, Mehwish; Seneviratne, Oshani; Pesquita, Catia; Sequeda, Juan; Etcheverry, Lorena
    This poster focuses on capturing the temporal evolution of migration-related topics on relevant tweets. It uses Dynamic Embedded Topic Model (DETM) as a learning algorithm to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of these emerging topics. TweetsKB is extended with the extracted Twitter dataset along with the results of DETM which considers temporality. These results are then further analyzed and visualized. It reveals that the trajectories of the migration-related topics are in agreement with historical events. The source codes are available online:
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    Challenges of Applying Knowledge Graph and their Embeddings to a Real-world Use-case
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Petzold, Rick; Gesese, Genet Asefa; Bogdanova, Viktoria; Zylowski, Thorsten; Sack, Harald; Alam, Mehwish; Alam, Mehwish; Buscaldi, Davide; Cochez, Michael; Osborne, Francesco; Reforgiato Recupero, Diego; Sack, Harald
    Different Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) models have been proposed so far which are trained on some specific KG completion tasks such as link prediction and evaluated on datasets which are mainly created for such purpose. Mostly, the embeddings learnt on link prediction tasks are not applied for downstream tasks in real-world use-cases such as data available in different companies/organizations. In this paper, the challenges with enriching a KG which is generated from a real-world relational database (RDB) about companies, with information from external sources such as Wikidata and learning representations for the KG are presented. Moreover, a comparative analysis is presented between the KGEs and various text embeddings on some downstream clustering tasks. The results of experiments indicate that in use-cases like the one used in this paper, where the KG is highly skewed, it is beneficial to use text embeddings or language models instead of KGEs.
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    Linked Data Supported Content Analysis for Sociology
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2019) Tietz, Tabea; Sack, Harald; Acosta, Maribel; Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe; Maleshkova, Maria; Pellegrini, Tassilo; Sack, Harald; Sure-Vetter, York
    Philology and hermeneutics as the analysis and interpretation of natural language text in written historical sources are the predecessors of modern content analysis and date back already to antiquity. In empirical social sciences, especially in sociology, content analysis provides valuable insights to social structures and cultural norms of the present and past. With the ever growing amount of text on the web to analyze, also numerous computer-assisted text analysis techniques and tools were developed in sociological research. However, existing methods often go without sufficient standardization. As a consequence, sociological text analysis is lacking transparency, reproducibility and data re-usability. The goal of this paper is to show, how Linked Data principles and Entity Linking techniques can be used to structure, publish and analyze natural language text for sociological research to tackle these shortcomings. This is achieved on the use case of constitutional text documents of the Netherlands from 1884 to 2016 which represent an important contribution to the European cultural heritage. Finally, the generated data is made available and re-usable as Linked Data not only for sociologists, but also for all other researchers in the digital humanities domain interested in the development of constitutions in the Netherlands.
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    Towards a Representation of Temporal Data in Archival Records: Use Cases and Requirements
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Bruns, Oleksandra; Tietz, Tabea; Vafaie, Mahsa; Dessì, Danilo; Sack, Harald; Lopes, Carla Teixeira; Ribeiro, Cristina; Niccolucci, Franco; Rodrigues, Irene; Freire, Nuno
    Archival records are essential sources of information for historians and digital humanists to understand history. For modern information systems they are often analysed and integrated into Knowledge Graphs for better access, interoperability and re-use. However, due to restrictions of the representation of RDF predicates temporal data within archival records is a challenge to model. This position paper explains requirements for modeling temporal data in archival records based on running research projects in which archival records are analysed and integrated in Knowledge Graphs for research and exploration.
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    Knowledge Extraction for Art History: the Case of Vasari’s The Lives of The Artists (1568)
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2022) Santini, Cristian; Tan, Mary Ann; Tietz, Tabea; Bruns, Oleksandra; Posthumus, Etienne; Sack, Harald; Paschke, Adrian; Rehm, Georg; Neudecker, Clemens; Pintscher, Lydia
    Knowledge Extraction (KE) techniques are used to convert unstructured information present in texts to Knowledge Graphs (KGs) which can be queried and explored. Despite their potential for cultural heritage domains, such as Art History, these techniques often encounter limitations if applied to domain-specific data. In this paper we present the main challenges that KE has to face on art-historical texts, by using as case study Giorgio Vasari's The Lives of The Artists. This paper discusses the following NLP tasks for art-historical texts, namely entity recognition and linking, coreference resolution, time extraction, motif extraction and artwork extraction. Several strategies to annotate art-historical data for these tasks and evaluate NLP models are also proposed.
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    Modelling Archival Hierarchies in Practice: Key Aspects and Lessons Learned
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Vafaie, Mahsa; Bruns, Oleksandra; Pilz, Nastasja; Dessì, Danilo; Sack, Harald; Sumikawa, Yasunobu; Ikejiri, Ryohei; Doucet, Antoine; Pfanzelter, Eva; Hasanuzzaman, Mohammed; Dias, Gaël; Milligan, Ian; Jatowt, Adam
    An increasing number of archival institutions aim to provide public access to historical documents. Ontologies have been designed, developed and utilised to model the archival description of historical documents and to enable interoperability between different information sources. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of archives and archival systems, current ontologies for the representation of archival content do not always cover all existing structural organisation forms equallywell. After briefly contextualising the heterogeneity in the hierarchical structure of German archives, this paper describes and evaluates differences between two archival ontologies, ArDO and RiC-O, and their approaches to modelling hierarchy levels and archive dynamics.
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    Knowledge Graph enabled Curation and Exploration of Nuremberg's City Heritage
    (Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Tietz, Tabea; Bruns, Oleksandra; Göller, Sandra; Razum, Matthias; Dessì, Danilo; Sack, Harald; Paschke, Adrian; Rehm, Georg; Al Qundus, Jamal; Neudecker, Clemens; Pintscher, Lydia
    An important part in European cultural identity relies on European cities and in particular on their histories and cultural heritage. Nuremberg, the home of important artists such as Albrecht Dürer and Hans Sachs developed into the epitome of German and European culture already during the Middle Ages. Throughout history, the city experienced a number of transformations, especially with its almost complete destruction during World War 2. This position paper presents TRANSRAZ, a project with the goal to recreate Nuremberg by means of an interactive 3D tool to explore the city's architecture and culture ranging from the 17th to the 21st century. The goal of this position paper is to discuss the ongoing work of connecting heterogeneous historical data from various sources previously hidden in archives to the 3D model using knowledge graphs for a scientifically accurate interactive exploration on the Web.