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- ItemBiobank Oversight and Sanctions Under the General Data Protection Regulation(Dordrecht ; Heidelberg ; New York ; London : Springer, 2021) Hallinan, Dara; Slokenberga, Santa; Tzortzatou, Olga; Reichel, JaneThis contribution offers an insight into the function and problems of the oversight and sanctions mechanisms outlined in the General Data Protection Regulation as they relate to the biobanking context. These mechanisms might be considered as meta-mechanisms—mechanisms relating to, but not consisting of, substantive legal principles—functioning in tandem to ensure biobank compliance with data protection principles. Each of the mechanisms outlines, on paper at least, comprehensive and impressive compliance architecture—both expanding on their capacity in relation to Directive 95/46. Accordingly, each mechanism looks likely to have a significant and lasting impact on biobanks and biobanking. Despite this comprehensiveness, however, the mechanisms are not immune from critique. Problems appear regarding the standard of protection provided for research subject rights, regarding the disproportionate impact on legitimate interests tied up with the biobanking process—particularly genomic research interests—and regarding their practical implementability in biobanking.
- ItemA Review on Recent Advances in Video-based Learning Research: Video Features, Interaction, Tools, and Technologies(Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Navarrete, Evelyn; Hoppe, Anett; Ewerth, Ralph; Cong, Gao; Ramanath, MayaHuman learning shifts stronger than ever towards online settings, and especially towards video platforms. There is an abundance of tutorials and lectures covering diverse topics, from fixing a bike to particle physics. While it is advantageous that learning resources are freely available on the Web, the quality of the resources varies a lot. Given the number of available videos, users need algorithmic support in finding helpful and entertaining learning resources. In this paper, we present a review of the recent research literature (2020-2021) on video-based learning. We focus on publications that examine the characteristics of video content, analyze frequently used features and technologies, and, finally, derive conclusions on trends and possible future research directions.
- ItemEffect of additives on MWCNT dispersion and electrical percolation in polyamide 12 composites(Melville, NY : AIP, 2017) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe aim of this study was to decrease the electrical percolation threshold of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polyamide 12 matrix by the use of additives. Different kinds of additives were selected which either interact with the π-system of the MWCNTs (imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)) or improve the MWCNT wettability (cyclic butylene terephthalate, CBT). The composites were melt mixed using a DACA microcompounder. The electrical percolation threshold for PA12/MWCNT without additives, measured on compression molded plates, was found between 2.0 and 2.25 wt%. With all used additives, a significant reduction of the electrical percolation threshold could be achieved. Whereas the addition of IL and CBT resulted in MWCNT percolation at around 1.0 wt%, a slightly higher percolation threshold between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% was found for PTCDA as an additive. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity at higher loadings was decreased by nearly two decades when using CBT and one decade after application of PTCDA, whereas IL did not contribute to lower values in this range. In all cases macrodispersion as assessed by light microscopy was not improved and even worse as compared to non-modified composites. In summary, the results illustrate that these kinds of additives are able to improve the performance of PA12 based MWCNT nanocomposites.
- ItemSaltwater intrusion under climate change in North-Western Germany - mapping, modelling and management approaches in the projects TOPSOIL and go-CAM(Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2018) Wiederhold, Helga; Scheer, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Reinhard; Azizur Rahman, M.; Ronczka, Mathias; Szymkiewicz, Adam; Sadurski, A.; Jaworska-Szulc, B.Climate change will result in rising sea level and, at least for the North Sea region, in rising groundwater table. This leads to a new balance at the fresh–saline groundwater boundary and a new distribution of saltwater intrusions with strong regional differentiations. These effects are investigated in several research projects funded by the European Union and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Objectives and some results from the projects TOPSOIL and go-CAM are presented in this poster.
- ItemA Case for Integrated Data Processing in Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems(Maui, Hawaii : HICSS, 2019) Glebke, René; Henze, Martin; Wehrle, Klaus; Niemietz, Philipp; Trauth, Daniel; Mattfeld, Patrick; Bergs, Thomas; Bui, Tung X.Large-scale cyber-physical systems such as manufacturing lines generate vast amounts of data to guarantee precise control of their machinery. Visions such as the Industrial Internet of Things aim at making this data available also to computation systems outside the lines to increase productivity and product quality. However, rising amounts and complexities of data and control decisions push existing infrastructure for data transmission, storage, and processing to its limits. In this paper, we exemplarily study a fine blanking line which can produce up to 6.2 Gbit/s worth of data to showcase the extreme requirements found in modern manufacturing. We consequently propose integrated data processing which keeps inherently local and small-scale tasks close to the processes while at the same time centralizing tasks relying on more complex decision procedures and remote data sources. Our approach thus allows for both maintaining control of field-level processes and leveraging the benefits of “big data” applications.
- ItemFormalizing Gremlin pattern matching traversals in an integrated graph Algebra(Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2019) Thakkar, Harsh; Auer, Sören; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Samavi, Reza; Consens, Mariano P.; Khatchadourian, Shahan; Nguyen, Vinh; Sheth, Amit; Giménez-García, José M.; Thakkar, HarshGraph data management (also called NoSQL) has revealed beneﬁcial characteristics in terms of ﬂexibility and scalability by diﬀer-ently balancing between query expressivity and schema ﬂexibility. This peculiar advantage has resulted into an unforeseen race of developing new task-speciﬁc graph systems, query languages and data models, such as property graphs, key-value, wide column, resource description framework (RDF), etc. Present-day graph query languages are focused towards ﬂex-ible graph pattern matching (aka sub-graph matching), whereas graph computing frameworks aim towards providing fast parallel (distributed) execution of instructions. The consequence of this rapid growth in the variety of graph-based data management systems has resulted in a lack of standardization. Gremlin, a graph traversal language, and machine provide a common platform for supporting any graph computing sys-tem (such as an OLTP graph database or OLAP graph processors). In this extended report, we present a formalization of graph pattern match-ing for Gremlin queries. We also study, discuss and consolidate various existing graph algebra operators into an integrated graph algebra.
- ItemMelt mixed composites of polypropylene with singlewalled carbon nanotubes for thermoelectric applications: Switching from p- to n-type behavior by additive addition(Melville, NY : AIP, 2019) Pötschke; Petra; Krause, Beate; Luo, JinjiComposites were prepared with polypropylene (PP) as the matrix and singlewalled CNTs (SWCNTs) of the type TUBALL from OCSiAl Ltd. as the conducting component by melt processing in a small-scale twin-screw compounder. In order to switch the typical p-type behavior of such composites from positive Seebeck coefficients (S) into n-type behavior with negative Seebeck coefficients, a non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene 20 cetyl ether (Brij58) was used and compared with a PEG additive, which was shown previously to be able to induce such switching. For PP-2 wt% SWCNT composites Brij58 is shown to result in n-type composites. The negative S values (up to −48.2 µV/K) are not as high as in the case of previous results using PEG (−56.6 µV/K). However, due to the more pronounced effect of Brij58 on the electrical conductivity, the achieved power factors are higher and reach a maximum of 0.144 µW/(m·K2) compared to previous 0.078 µW/(m·K2) with PEG. Dispersion improvement depends on the type of SWCNTs obtained by using varied synthesis/treatment conditions. Solution prepared composites of PEG with SWCNTs also have negative S values, indicating the donation of electrons from PEG to the SWCNTs. However, such composites are brittle and not suitable as thermoelectric materials.
- ItemFingertip friction and tactile rating of wrapping papers(Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2022) Jost, Kim Michèle; Drewing, Knut; Bennewitz, Roland; Seifi, Hasti; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Schneider, Oliver; Drewing, Knut; Pacchierotti, Claudio; Abbasimoshaei, Alireza; Huisman, Gijs; Kern, Thorsten A.The tactile exploration and perception of wrapping papers is investigated in terms of fingertip friction and rating of sensory, affective, and evaluative adjectives. Friction coefficients, which vary significantly between samples, are correlated with factors such as valence which are identified in a principal component analysis of subjective ratings. We found that affective appraisals of valence and arousal as well as evaluations of novelty, but not of value, decreased with increasing friction.
- ItemOn the Role of Images for Analyzing Claims in Social Media(Aachen, Germany : RWTH Aachen, 2021) Cheema, Gullal S.; Hakimov, Sherzod; Müller-Budack, Eric; Ewerth, RalphFake news is a severe problem in social media. In this paper, we present an empirical study on visual, textual, and multimodal models for the tasks of claim, claim check-worthiness, and conspiracy detection, all of which are related to fake news detection. Recent work suggests that images are more influential than text and often appear alongside fake text. To this end, several multimodal models have been proposed in recent years that use images along with text to detect fake news on social media sites like Twitter. However, the role of images is not well understood for claim detection, specifically using transformer-based textual and multimodal models. We investigate state-of-the-art models for images, text (Transformer-based), and multimodal information for four different datasets across two languages to understand the role of images in the task of claim and conspiracy detection.
- ItemTowards Customizable Chart Visualizations of Tabular Data Using Knowledge Graphs(Cham : Springer, 2020) Wiens, Vitalis; Stocker, Markus; Auer, Sören; Ishita, Emi; Pang, Natalie Lee San; Zhou, LihongScientific articles are typically published as PDF documents, thus rendering the extraction and analysis of results a cumbersome, error-prone, and often manual effort. New initiatives, such as ORKG, focus on transforming the content and results of scientific articles into structured, machine-readable representations using Semantic Web technologies. In this article, we focus on tabular data of scientific articles, which provide an organized and compressed representation of information. However, chart visualizations can additionally facilitate their comprehension. We present an approach that employs a human-in-the-loop paradigm during the data acquisition phase to define additional semantics for tabular data. The additional semantics guide the creation of chart visualizations for meaningful representations of tabular data. Our approach organizes tabular data into different information groups which are analyzed for the selection of suitable visualizations. The set of suitable visualizations serves as a user-driven selection of visual representations. Additionally, customization for visual representations provides the means for facilitating the understanding and sense-making of information.