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Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
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    Advances in electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscatter diffraction for imaging and analysis of structural defects in the scanning electron microscope
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2020) Trager-Cowan, C.; Alasmari, A.; Avis, W.; Bruckbauer, J.; Edwards, P.R.; Hourahine, B.; Kraeusel, S.; Kusch, G.; Jablon, B.M.; Johnston, R.; Martin, R.W.; Mcdermott, R.; Naresh-Kumar, G.; Nouf-Allehiani, M.; Pascal, E.; Thomson, D.; Vespucci, S.; Mingard, K.; Parbrook, P.J.; Smith, M.D.; Enslin, J.; Mehnke, F.; Kneissl, M.; Kuhn, C.; Wernicke, T.; Knauer, A.; Hagedorn, S.; Walde, S.; Weyers, M.; Coulon, P.-M.; Shields, P.A.; Zhang, Y.; Jiu, L.; Gong, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Wang, T.; Winkelmann, A.
    In this article we describe the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques of electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscatter diffraction. These techniques provide information on crystal structure, crystal misorientation, grain boundaries, strain and structural defects on length scales from tens of nanometres to tens of micrometres. Here we report on the imaging and analysis of dislocations and sub-grains in nitride semiconductor thin films (GaN and AlN) and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) hard metals. Our aim is to illustrate the capability of these techniques for investigating structural defects in the SEM and the benefits of combining these diffraction-based imaging techniques.
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    Evaluation of optical data gained by ARAMIS-measurement of abdominal wall movements for an anisotropic pattern design of stress-adapted hernia meshes produced by embroidery technology
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2017) Breier, A.; Bittrich, L.; Hahn, J.; Spickenheuer, A.
    For the sustainable repair of abdominal wall hernia the application of hernia meshes is required. One reason for the relapse of hernia after surgery is seen in an inadequate adaption of the mechanical properties of the mesh to the movements of the abdominal wall. Differences in the stiffness of the mesh and the abdominal tissue cause tension, friction and stress resulting in a deficient tissue response and subsequently in a recurrence of a hernia, preferentially in the marginal area of the mesh. Embroidery technology enables a targeted influence on the mechanical properties of the generated textile structure by a directed thread deposition. Textile parameters like stitch density, alignment and angle can be changed easily and locally in the embroidery pattern to generate a space-resolved mesh with mechanical properties adapted to the requirement of the surrounding tissue. To determine those requirements the movements of the abdominal wall and the resulting distortions need to be known. This study was conducted to gain optical data of the abdominal wall movements by non-invasive ARAMIS-measurement on 39 test persons to estimate direction and value of the major strains.
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    Computational Simulations of the Lateral-Photovoltage-Scanning-Method
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2018) Kayser, S.; Lüdge, A.; Böttcher, K.
    The major task for the Lateral-Photovoltage-Scanning-Method is to detect doping striations and the shape of the solid-liquid-interface of an indirect semiconductor crystal. This method is sensitive to the gradient of the charge carrier density. Attempting to simulate the signal generation of the LPS-Method, we are using a three dimensional Finite Volume approach for solving the van Roosbroeck equations with COMSOL Multiphysics in a silicon sample. We show that the simulated LPS-voltage is directly proportional to the gradient of a given doping distribution, which is also the case for the measured LPS-voltage.
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    Influence of microwave plasma treatment on the surface properties of carbon fibers and their adhesion in a polypropylene matrix
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2016) Scheffler, C.; Wölfel, E.; Förster, T.; Poitzsch, C.; Kotte, L.; Mäder, G.; Madsen, Bo; Biel, A.; Kusano, Y.; Lilholt, H.; Mikkelsen, L.P.; Mishnaevsky Jr., L.; Sørensen, B.F.
    A commercially available carbon fiber (CF) with an epoxy-based sizing (EP-sized CF) and an unsized CF have been plasma treated to study the effect on the fiber-matrix adhesion towards a polypropylene matrix. The EP-sized fiber was chosen because of its predictable low adhesion in a polypropylene (PP) matrix. The fibers have been modified using a microwave low-pressure O2/CO2/N2-gas plasma source (Cyrannus®) developed at IWS in a batch process. One aim of this study was the evaluation of parameters using high energies and short time periods in the plasma chamber to see the effect on mechanical performance of CF. These results will be the fundamental work for a planned continuous plasma modification line. The CF surface was characterized by determining the surface energies, single fiber tensile strength and XPS analysis. The adhesion behavior before and after plasma treatment was studied by single fiber pull-out test (SFPO) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that the CO2- and O2-plasma increases the number of functional groups on the fiber surface during short time plasma treatment of 30 s. Carboxylic groups on the unsized CF surface resulting from O2-plasma treatment lead to an enhanced fiber-matrix adhesion, whereas the fiber strength was merely reduced.
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    Stress adapted embroidered meshes with a graded pattern design for abdominal wall hernia repair
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2017) Hahn, J.; Bittrich, L.; Breier, A.; Spickenheuer, A.
    Abdominal wall hernias are one of the most relevant injuries of the digestive system with 25 million patients in 2013. Surgery is recommended primarily using allogenic non-absorbable wrap-knitted meshes. These meshes have in common that their stress-strain behaviour is not adapted to the anisotropic behaviour of native abdominal wall tissue. The ideal mesh should possess an adequate mechanical behaviour and a suitable porosity at the same time. An alternative fabrication method to wrap-knitting is the embroidery technology with a high flexibility in pattern design and adaption of mechanical properties. In this study, a pattern generator was created for pattern designs consisting of a base and a reinforcement pattern. The embroidered mesh structures demonstrated different structural and mechanical characteristics. Additionally, the investigation of the mechanical properties exhibited an anisotropic mechanical behaviour for the embroidered meshes. As a result, the investigated pattern generator and the embroidery technology allow the production of stress adapted mesh structures that are a promising approach for hernia reconstruction.
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    Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2017) Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O.N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.; Gerbeth, Gunther; Stieglitz, Robert
    The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.
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    Quantifying texture evolution during hot rolling of AZ31 Twin Roll Cast strip
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2015) Gorelova, S.; Schaeben, H.; Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg
    Multi-pass rolling experiments with an AZ31 Twin Roll Cast (TRC) alloy were performed on an industrial scaled four-high rolling mill. Within the rolling with an intermediate annealing the evolution of texture was investigated. To quantify the extent of preferred crystallographic orientation experimental X-ray pole figures were measured after different process steps and analyzed using the free and open Matlab® toolbox MTEX for texture analysis. The development of the fiber texture was observed and analyzed in dependence on rolling conditions. In the initial state the specimen exhibits a texture composed of a weak basal texture and a cast texture with {0001}-planes oriented across the rolling direction. During the following rolling process a fiber texture was developed. The expected strength increment of the fiber texture was quantitatively confirmed in terms of volume portions of the orientation density function around the fiber and in terms of the canonical parameters of fitted pseudo Bingham distributions. On the results of this work a model for prediction of the texture evolution during the strip rolling of magnesium in the examined parameter range was developed.
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    Chemical Bonded PA66-PTFE-Oil Composites as Novel Tribologically Effective Materials: Part 2
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2021) Nguyen, Thanh-Duong; Kamga, Lionel Simo; Gedan-Smolka, Michaela; Sauer, Bernd; Emrich, Stefan; Kopnarski, Michael; Voit, Brigitte; Karjust, Krist; Otto, Tauno; Kübarsepp, Jakob; Hussainova, Irina
    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) exhibits excellent non-stick properties and a very low coefficient of friction under tribological stress, but it is incompatible with almost all other polymers. In the first part of this study we presented the generation of the novel tribological material based on unsaturated oil, radiation-modified PTFE (MP1100) and Polyamide 66 (PA66). To get a better understanding of the chemical properties and chemical composition of the compounds, the PA66-MP1100-oil-cb (chemical bonded) compounds were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In this part, the mechanical properties of the compounds are compared with plain PA66 and PA66-MP1100-cb. The tribological investigation was carried out using the Block-on-Ring tribometer. It was found that the mechanical properties of PA66-MP1100-oil-cb with 20 wt.% MP1100-oil-cb only show slight differences compared to PA66, but the tribological properties of the compounds have been significantly improved through chemical coupling between the three components. Finally, the amount of the compound that was deposited on the surface of the steel disc counterpart was analyzed after the tribological testing.
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    Preliminary Study on the Application of Temperature Swing Adsorption in Aqueous Phase for Pesticide Removal
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2018) Aumeier, B.; Dang, H.Q.A.; Wessling, M.
    Temperature swing adsorption (TSA) is a well-established process for gas purification. In this work, the feasibility of TSA in aqueous phase was studied. This concept could enable in situ adsorbent regeneration and thus fostering sustainable decentralized adsorption processes applied to water treatment. The adsorption processes with the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) have been widely applied to remove the residual amounts of pesticides in water treatment. Amitrole was chosen as a typical pesticide in this study, GAC was selected as the main adsorbent for amitrole removal. Adsorption isotherm experiments were conducted at different temperatures of 20°C, 57°C and 94°C to identify the most appropriate sorptive – sorbent system for dynamic adsorption and TSA research. Once the isotherm experiments were accomplished, breakthrough curve experiments were subsequently investigated. Finally, TSA process was conducted with the activated carbon regeneration at the elevated temperature of 125°C. Consequently, initial obtained results proved the feasibility of the proposed TSA technique for pesticide removal in aqueous phase.
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    Ambient noise analysis for characterizing sub-surface dynamic parameters
    (London [u.a.] : Institute of Physics, 2020) Setiawan, B.; Saidi, T.; Yuliannur, A.; Polom, U.; Ramadhansyah, P.J.; Ali, M.I.
    Ambient noise analysis of horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method has been used widely to provide reliable estimates of the site fundamental frequency and to constrain the inversion of near-surface shear wave velocity. The present paper focuses on the site measurement using the aforementioned analysis by means of the HVSR method for characterizing sub-surface dynamic parameters in the City of Banda Aceh, Indonesia. A Guralp CMG-6TD broadband seismometer was used in this study to cover a wide frequency range from 0.033 Hz to 50 Hz in standard operation. The instrument was deployed at two different sites (i.e. Location#1 of Blang Padang and Location#2 of Stadion Dirmutala) in the City of Banda Aceh for at least 2 hours for ambient noise recording. This continuous of 2 hours' microtremor time series was separated into 30 minutes record from which the site fundamental frequency and shear wave velocity of the measured site were deduced. The later sub-surface dynamic parameter was validated using another technique of reflection seismic. This investigation suggests the fundamental frequency of 0.45 Hz at Location#1 and of 0.65 Hz at Location#2. The estimated shear wave velocity of the top 30 m, Vs,30 of this investigation is 165 m/s at Location#1 and 156 m/s at Location#2. Both the site fundamental frequency and shear wave velocity are important for infrastructure design in the high seismic region of Banda Aceh, Indonesia.