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    Towards Customizable Chart Visualizations of Tabular Data Using Knowledge Graphs
    (Cham : Springer, 2020) Wiens, Vitalis; Stocker, Markus; Auer, Sören; Ishita, Emi; Pang, Natalie Lee San; Zhou, Lihong
    Scientific articles are typically published as PDF documents, thus rendering the extraction and analysis of results a cumbersome, error-prone, and often manual effort. New initiatives, such as ORKG, focus on transforming the content and results of scientific articles into structured, machine-readable representations using Semantic Web technologies. In this article, we focus on tabular data of scientific articles, which provide an organized and compressed representation of information. However, chart visualizations can additionally facilitate their comprehension. We present an approach that employs a human-in-the-loop paradigm during the data acquisition phase to define additional semantics for tabular data. The additional semantics guide the creation of chart visualizations for meaningful representations of tabular data. Our approach organizes tabular data into different information groups which are analyzed for the selection of suitable visualizations. The set of suitable visualizations serves as a user-driven selection of visual representations. Additionally, customization for visual representations provides the means for facilitating the understanding and sense-making of information.
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    Creating a Scholarly Knowledge Graph from Survey Article Tables
    (Cham : Springer, 2020) Oelen, Allard; Stocker, Markus; Auer, Sören; Ishita, Emi; Pang, Natalie Lee San; Zhou, Lihong
    Due to the lack of structure, scholarly knowledge remains hardly accessible for machines. Scholarly knowledge graphs have been proposed as a solution. Creating such a knowledge graph requires manual effort and domain experts, and is therefore time-consuming and cumbersome. In this work, we present a human-in-the-loop methodology used to build a scholarly knowledge graph leveraging literature survey articles. Survey articles often contain manually curated and high-quality tabular information that summarizes findings published in the scientific literature. Consequently, survey articles are an excellent resource for generating a scholarly knowledge graph. The presented methodology consists of five steps, in which tables and references are extracted from PDF articles, tables are formatted and finally ingested into the knowledge graph. To evaluate the methodology, 92 survey articles, containing 160 survey tables, have been imported in the graph. In total, 2626 papers have been added to the knowledge graph using the presented methodology. The results demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, but also indicate that manual effort is required and thus underscore the important role of human experts.
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    Requirements Analysis for an Open Research Knowledge Graph
    (Berlin ; Heidelberg : Springer, 2020) Brack, Arthur; Hoppe, Anett; Stocker, Markus; Auer, Sören; Ewerth, Ralph; Hall, Mark; Merčun, Tanja; Risse, Thomas; Duchateau, Fabien
    Current science communication has a number of drawbacks and bottlenecks which have been subject of discussion lately: Among others, the rising number of published articles makes it nearly impossible to get a full overview of the state of the art in a certain field, or reproducibility is hampered by fixed-length, document-based publications which normally cannot cover all details of a research work. Recently, several initiatives have proposed knowledge graphs (KGs) for organising scientific information as a solution to many of the current issues. The focus of these proposals is, however, usually restricted to very specific use cases. In this paper, we aim to transcend this limited perspective by presenting a comprehensive analysis of requirements for an Open Research Knowledge Graph (ORKG) by (a) collecting daily core tasks of a scientist, (b) establishing their consequential requirements for a KG-based system, (c) identifying overlaps and specificities, and their coverage in current solutions. As a result, we map necessary and desirable requirements for successful KG-based science communication, derive implications and outline possible solutions.