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    Variations of the aerosol chemical composition during Asian dust storm at Dushanbe, Tajikistan
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Müller, Konrad; Hofer, Julian; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.; Althausen, Dietrich; Nazarov, Bahron I.; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Herrmann, Hartmut
    Aerosol chemical composition was characterized during the Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX) at Dushanbe (Tajikistan). Aerosol samples were collected during a period of 2 months from March to May 2015 using a high volume DIGITEL DHA-80 sampler on quartz fiber filters. The filters were analyzed for their ionic, trace metals as well as organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) content. The aerosol mass showed strong variation with mass concentration ranging from 18 μg/m3 to 110 μg/m3. The mineral dust concentrations varied between 0.9 μg/m3 and 88 μg/m3. Days of high aerosol mass loadings were dominated by mineral dust, which made up to about 80% of the aerosol mass while organic matter and inorganic ions made up about 70% of the aerosol mass during days of low aerosol mass loadings. The mineral dust composition showed different trace metal signatures in comparison to Saharan dust with higher Ca content and Ca/Fe ratios twice as high as that observed in Saharan dust. Strong influence of anthropogenic activities was observed in the trace metal concentrations with Zn and Pb concentrations ranging from 7 to 197 ng/m3 and 2 to 20 ng/m3, respectively. Mineral dust and anthropogenic activities relating to traffic, combustion as well as metallurgical industrial emissions are identified as the sources of the aerosol during this period. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
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    Observation of Arabian and Saharan dust in Cyprus with a new generation of the smart Raman lidar Polly
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Heese, Birgit; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Vrekoussis, Mihalis
    The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the “3+2” measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].
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    Measurement of the linear depolarization ratio of aged dust at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously over Barbados
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Haarig, Moritz; Althausen, Dietrich; Ansmann, Albert; Klepel, André; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Groß, Silke; Freudenthaler, Volker
    A ground-based polarization Raman lidar is presented, that is able to measure the depolarization ratio at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously. This new feature is implemented for the first time in a Raman lidar. It provides a full dataset of 3 backscatter coefficients, two extinction coefficients and 3 depolarization ratios (3+2+3 lidar system). To ensure the data quality, it has been compared to the well characterized two-wavelength polarization lidar POLIS. Measurements of long-range transported dust have been performed in the framework of the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE) in the Caribbean.
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    Vertical profiles of dust and other aerosol types above a coastal site
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Althausen, Dietrich; Mewes, Silke; Heese, Birgit; Hofer, Julian; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Holodovsky, Vadim
    Monthly mean vertical profiles of aerosol type occurrences are determined from multiwavelength Raman and polarization lidar measurements above Haifa, Israel, in 2017. This contribution presents the applied methods and threshold values. The results are discussed for one example, May 2017. This month shows more often large, non-spherical particles in lofted layers than within the planetary boundary layer. Small particles are observed at higher altitudes only when they are observed in lower altitudes, too. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
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    Aerosol properties over Southeastern China from multi-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar measurements
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Heese, Birgit; Althausen, Dietrich; Baars, Holger; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Deng, Ruru
    A dataset of particle optical properties of highly polluted urban aerosol over the Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou, China is presented. The data were derived from multi-wavelengths Raman and depolarization lidar PollyXT and AERONET sun photometer measurements. The measurement campaign was conducted from Nov 2011 to June 2012. High aerosol optical depth was observed in the polluted atmosphere over this megacity, with a mean value of 0.54 ± 0.33 and a peak value of even 1.9. For the particle characterization the lidar ratio and the linear particle depolarization ratio, both at 532 nm, were used. The mean values of these properties are 48.0 sr ± 10.7 sr for the lidar ratio and 4%+-4% for the particle depolarization ratio, which means most depolarization measurements stayed below 10%. So far, most of these results indicate urban pollution particles mixed with particles arisen from biomass and industrial burning.
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    Standards – An important step for the (public) use of lidars
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Althausen, Dietrich; Emeis, Stefan; Flentje, Harald; Guttenberger, Josef; Jäckel, Simon; Lehmann, Volker; Mattis, Ina; Münkel, Christoph; Peters, Gerhard; Ritter, Christoph; Wiegner, Matthias; Wille, Holger
    Lidar standards are needed to ensure quality and lidar product control at the interface between lidar manufacturers and lidar users. Meanwhile three lidar standards have been published by German and international standardization organizations. This paper describes the cooperation between the lidar technique inventors, lidar instrument constructors, and lidar product users to establish useful standards. Presently a backscatter lidar standard is elaborated in Germany. Key points of this standard are presented here. Two German standards were already accepted as international standards by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Hence, German and international organizations for the establishment of lidar standards are introduced to encourage a cooperative work on lidar standards by lidar scientists.
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    Estimation of dust related ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere: Comparison of profiling and in-situ measurements
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Walser, Adrian; Baars, Holger; Urbanneck, Claudia; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Schöberl, Manuel; Dollner, Maximilian; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Althausen, Dietrich
    Vertical profiles of number concentrations of dust particles relevant for ice nucleation in clouds are derived from lidar measurements. The results are compared to coincidental airborne in-situ measurements of particle number and surface area concentrations in the dust layer. The observations were performed in long-range transported Saharan dust at Barbados and Asian dust at Cyprus. The Asian dust data analysis is ongoing. A comparison of Asian and Saharan dust will be given at the conference. Concentrations of ice nucleating particles in the order of 10 to 1000 per cm-3 in the dust layer are derived for a temperature of-25°C at Barbados. The method can be used to continuously monitor the concentration of ice nucleating dust particles vertically resolved from lidar measurements. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
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    CADEX and beyond: Installation of a new PollyXT site in Dushanbe
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Engelmann, Ronny; Hofer, Julian; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.; Baars, Holger; Hanbuch, Karsten; Ansmann, Albert; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Macke, Andreas; Althausen, Dietrich
    During the 18-month Central Asian Dust Experiment we conducted continuous lidar measurements at the Physical Technical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan in Dushanbe between 2015 and 2016. Mineral dust plumes from various source regions have been observed and characterized in terms of their occurrence, and their optical and microphysical properties with the Raman lidar PollyXT. Currently a new container-based lidar system is constructed which will be installed for continuous long-term measurements in Dushanbe. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
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    Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX): Multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar observations in Tajikistan
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2016) Hofer, Julian; Althausen, Dietrich; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger
    For the first time lidar measurements of vertical aerosol profiles are conducted in Tajikistan/Central Asia. These measurements just started on March 17th, 2015. They are performed within the Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX) in Dushanbe and they will last at least one year. The deployed system for these observations is an updated version of the multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar PollyXT. Vertical profiles of the backscatter coefficient, the extinction coefficient, and the particle depolarization ratio are measured by this instrument. A first and preliminary measurement example of an aerosol layer over Dushanbe is shown.
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    Aerosol layer heights above Tajikistan during the CADEX campaign
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Hofer, Julian; Althausen, Dietrich; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Nazarov, Bakhron I.; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert
    Mineral dust influences climate and weather by direct and indirect effects. Surrounded by dust sources, Central Asian countries are affected by atmospheric mineral dust on a regular basis. Climate change effects like glacier retreat and desertification are prevalent in Central Asia as well. Therefore, the role of dust in the climate system in Central Asia needs to be clarified and quantified. During the Central Asian Dust EXperiment (CADEX) first lidar observations in Tajikistan were conducted. Long-term vertically resolved aerosol measurements were performed with the multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar PollyXT from March 2015 to August 2016 in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. In this contribution, a climatology of the aerosol layer heights is presented, which was retrieved from the 18-month lidar measurements. Automatic detection based on backscatter coefficient thresholds were used to retrieve the aerosol layer heights and yield similar layer heights as manual layer height determination. The significant aerosol layer height has a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The highest layers occurred in spring, but in summer uppermost layer heights above 6 km AGL are frequent, too. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.