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    Modelling mineral dust in the Central Asian region
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina
    In Central Asia, climate and air quality are largely affected by local and long-travelled mineral dust. For the last century, the area has experienced severe land-use changes and water exploitation producing new dust sources. Today global warming causes rapid shrinking of mountain glaciers with yet unknow consequences for dust and its climate effects. Despite the importance for a growing population, only little is known about sources, transport pathways and properties of Central Asian dust. A transport study with a global aerosol-climate model is undertaken to investigate the life cycle of mineral dust in Central Asia for the period of a remote-sensing campaign in Tajikistan in 2015-2016. An initial evaluation with sun photometer measurements shows reasonable agreement for the average amount of dust, but a significant weakness of the model in reproducing the seasonality of local dust with maximum activity in summer. Source apportionment reveals a major contribution from Arabia throughout the year in accordance with observations. In the model, local sources mainly contribute in spring and autumn while summer-time dust production is underestimated. The results underline the importance of considering long-range transport and, locally, a detailed representation of atmospheric dynamics and surface characteristics for modelling dust in Central Asia. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.
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    Lidar/radar approach to quantify the dust impact on ice nucleation in mid and high level clouds
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2019) Ansmann, Albert; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Bühl, Johannes; Seifert, Patric; Engelmann, Ronny; Nisantzi, Agyro; Hofer, Julian; Baars, Holger
    We present the first attempt of a closure experiment regarding the relationship between ice nucleating particle concentration (INPC) and ice crystal number concentration (ICNC), solely based on active remote sensing. The approach combines aerosol and cloud observations with polarization lidar, Doppler lidar, and cloud radar. Several field campaigns were conducted on the island of Cyprus in the Eastern Mediterranean from 2015-2018 to study heterogeneous ice formation in altocumulus and cirrus layers embedded in Saharan dust. A case study observed on 10 April 2017 is discussed in this contribution. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.