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    Comparison of the molecular properties and morphology of polypropylenes irradiated under different atmospheres and after annealing
    (Hoboken, NJ [u.a.] : Wiley InterScience, 2006) Krause, Beate; Häußler, Liane; Voigt, Dieter
    Electron-beam irradiation, a well-known way of generating long-chain branching, was used to modify polypropylene. Samples were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry, polarized light microscopy, and size exclusion chromatography. Independently of the atmosphere, postannealing led to the deactivation of residual radicals and to the reduction of the nucleus density. In comparison with the initial polypropylene, the crystallization temperatures increased for nonannealed samples but decreased for annealed samples. Stable products were obtained only by irradiation in nitrogen followed by annealing. A reaction including free radicals with oxygen in the ambient atmosphere led to increasing molar mass degradation and the formation of long-chain branching after Storage. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    Influence of talc with different particle sizes in melt-mixed LLDPE/MWCNT composites
    (Hoboken, NJ [u.a.] : Wiley, 2013) Müller, Michael Thomas; Dreyße, Janine; Häußler, Liane; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra
    Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was melt-mixed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and varying amounts of three different kinds of talc (phyllo silicate), each with a different particle size distribution, to examine the effect of these filler combinations with regards to the electrical percolation behavior. The state of the filler dispersion was assessed using transmission light microscopy and electron microscopy. The use of talc as a second filler during the melt mixing of LLDPE/MWCNT composites resulted in an improvement in the dispersion of the MWCNTs and a decrease of the electrical percolation threshold. Talc with lower particle sizes showed a more pronounced effect than talc with larger particle sizes. However, the improvement in dispersion was not reflected in the mechanical properties. Modulus and stress values increase with both, MWCNT and talc addition, but not in a synergistic manner. The crystallization behavior of the composites was studied by differential scanning calorimetry to determine its potential influence on the electrical percolation threshold. It was found that the crystallinity of the matrix increased slightly with the addition of talc but no further increments were observed with the incorporation of the MWCNTs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    Influence of small scale melt mixing conditions on electrical resistivity of carbon nanotube-polyamide composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2009) Krause, Beate; Pötschke, Petra; Häußler, Liane
    Polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyamide 6.6 (PA66) were filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) using small scale melt mixing under variation of processing conditions, including temperature, rotation speed, and mixing time. In PA66 an electrical percolation threshold of 1 wt% MWNT was found which is lower than that of PA6 at 2.5-4 wt%. In both cases mixing conditions influenced strongly the dispersion and distribution of CNT and the electrical volume resistivity, whereas crystallisation behaviour was only slightly changed. With increasing mixing energy input remaining agglomerates were less in number and smaller, leading to better dispersion. On the other hand, in samples containing 5 wt% MWNT in PA6 electrical volume resistivity showed a minimum at a quite low energy input and then increased considerably with further input of mixing energy. This increase may be related to MWNT breaking during mixing and encapsulation of MWNT by the polyamide chains. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Ultralow percolation threshold in polyamide 6.6/MWCNT composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2015) Krause, Beate; Boldt, Regine; Häußler, Liane; Pötschke, Petra
    When incorporating multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesised by the aerosol-CVD method using different solvents into polyamide 6.6 (PA66) by melt mixing an ultralow electrical percolation threshold of 0.04. wt.% was found. This very low threshold was assigned to the specific characteristic of the MWCNTs for which a very high aspect ratio, a good dispersability in aqueous surfactant dispersions, and relatively low oxygen content near the surface were measured. The investigation of the composites by transmission electron microscopy on ultrathin cuts as well as by scanning electron microscopy combined with charge contrast imaging on compression moulded plates illustrated a good MWCNT dispersion within the PA66 matrix and that the very high aspect ratio of the nanotubes remained even after melt processing. Additionally, the thermal behaviour of the PA66 composites was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showing that the addition of only 0.05. wt.% MWCNT leads to an increase of the onset crystallization temperature of 11. K.