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- ItemEffect of additives on MWCNT dispersion and electrical percolation in polyamide 12 composites(Melville, NY : AIP, 2017) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Pötschke, PetraThe aim of this study was to decrease the electrical percolation threshold of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a polyamide 12 matrix by the use of additives. Different kinds of additives were selected which either interact with the π-system of the MWCNTs (imidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)) or improve the MWCNT wettability (cyclic butylene terephthalate, CBT). The composites were melt mixed using a DACA microcompounder. The electrical percolation threshold for PA12/MWCNT without additives, measured on compression molded plates, was found between 2.0 and 2.25 wt%. With all used additives, a significant reduction of the electrical percolation threshold could be achieved. Whereas the addition of IL and CBT resulted in MWCNT percolation at around 1.0 wt%, a slightly higher percolation threshold between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% was found for PTCDA as an additive. Interestingly, the electrical resistivity at higher loadings was decreased by nearly two decades when using CBT and one decade after application of PTCDA, whereas IL did not contribute to lower values in this range. In all cases macrodispersion as assessed by light microscopy was not improved and even worse as compared to non-modified composites. In summary, the results illustrate that these kinds of additives are able to improve the performance of PA12 based MWCNT nanocomposites.
- ItemElectrical and thermal properties of polyamide 12 composites with hybrid fillers systems of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon black(Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Hermasch, Sylvia; Wursche, Roland; Pötschke, PetraHybrid filler systems of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon black (CB) were incorporated into two types of polyamide 12 (PA12) using small-scale melt mixing in order to identify potential synergistic effects on the interaction of these two electrical conductive fillers. Although no synergistic effects were observed regarding the electrical percolation threshold, at loadings well above the percolation threshold higher volume conductivities were obtained for samples containing both, MWCNT and CB, as compared to single fillers. This effect was more pronounced when using a higher viscous PA12 matrix. The formation of a co-supporting network can be assumed. The combined use of CB and MWCNTs improved the macrodispersion of MWCNT agglomerates, which can be assigned as a synergistic effect. DSC measurements indicated an effect of the nanofiller on crystallisation temperatures of PA12; however this was independent of the kind or amount of the carbon nanofiller. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemThe influence of matrix viscosity on MWCNT dispersion and electrical properties in different thermoplastic nanocomposites(Oxford : Elsevier Science, 2012) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Müller, Michael T.; Boldt, Regine; Pötschke, PetraComposites of MWCNTs having each three different levels of matrix viscosity with five different polymers (polyamide 12, polybutylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyetheretherketone and low density polyethylene) were melt mixed to identify the general influence of matrix viscosity on the electrical properties and the state of MWCNT dispersion. Huge differences in the electrical percolation thresholds were found using the same polymer matrix with different viscosity grades. The lowest percolation thresholds were always found in the composites based on the low viscosity matrix. The state of primary MWCNT agglomerate dispersion increased with increasing matrix viscosity due to the higher input of mixing energy. TEM investigations showed nanoagglomerated structures in the low viscosity samples which are obviously needed to achieve low resistivity values. The effect of nanotube shortening was quantified using two different viscosity grades of polycarbonate. Due to the higher mixing energy input the nanotube shortening was more pronounced in the high viscosity matrix which partially explains the higher percolation threshold. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- ItemMelt mixed nano composites of PA12 with MWNTs: Influence of MWNT and matrix properties on macrodispersion and electrical properties(Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Boldt, Regine; Hermasch, Sylvia; Wursche, Roland; Pötschke, PetraNanocomposites containing four different polyamide 12 (PA12) types and three grades of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared via small-scale melt processing to study the effect of different MWNTs and the influence of polymer properties on the dispersion of the fillers and the electrical properties of the composites. Under the selected mixing conditions the lowest electrical percolation threshold of 0.7. wt.% was found for Nanocyl™ NC7000 in low viscous PA12. Moreover, big influences of the end group functionality (acid or amine excess) and the melt viscosity of the matrix were found. Composites of PA12 with acid excess showed lower percolation thresholds than those based on amine terminated materials. At constant end group ratio low viscous matrices resulted in lower percolation thresholds than high viscous materials. The best MWNT dispersion was obtained in both high viscous PA12 composites. In these systems the mixing speed was varied indicating an optimum concerning electrical conductivity at 150 rpm as compared to 50 and 250 rpm. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
- ItemInterfacial chemistry using a bifunctional coupling agent for enhanced electrical properties of carbon nanotube based composites(Oxford : Elsevier Science, 2013) Socher, Robert; Jakisch, Lothar; Krause, Beate; Oertel, Ulrich; Voit, Brigitte; Pötschke, PetraA bifunctional coupling agent (BCA) containing one oxazoline and one benzoxazinone group was applied to promote a reaction between polyamide 12 (PA12) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during melt mixing. With this modification, the MWCNT content needed for the electrical percolation was significantly reduced by more than a factor of three. For amino functionalized MWCNT-PA12 composites adding 1 wt.% BCA electrical percolation was reached at only 0.37 wt.% MWCNTs compared to 1.0 wt.% without BCA. With the help of a model reaction, the covalent attachment of the BCA to the MWCNTs could be shown by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and via fluorescence spectroscopy. Model compounds were applied containing either only the oxazoline or the benzoxazinone group to show that the better electrical properties in the PA12-MWCNT composites were a result of a covalent bond between the polymer and the nanotube which only takes place when the BCA was used. In addition, significantly higher electrical conductivity values were obtained by the addition of BCA as well with amino functionalized as with nonmodified commercial MWCNTs. This surprising result was attributed to the significant hydroxy group content on the surface of those commercial MWCNTs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.