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Now showing 1 - 10 of 31
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    A Fair and Comprehensive Comparison of Multimodal Tweet Sentiment Analysis Methods
    (Ithaka : Cornell University, 2021) Cheema, Gullal S.; Hakimov, Sherzod; Müller-Budack, Eric; Ewerth, Ralph
    Opinion and sentiment analysis is a vital task to characterize subjective information in social media posts. In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental evaluation and comparison with six state-of-the-art methods, from which we have re-implemented one of them. In addition, we investigate different textual and visual feature embeddings that cover different aspects of the content, as well as the recently introduced multimodal CLIP embeddings. Experimental results are presented for two different publicly available benchmark datasets of tweets and corresponding images. In contrast to the evaluation methodology of previous work, we introduce a reproducible and fair evaluation scheme to make results comparable. Finally, we conduct an error analysis to outline the limitations of the methods and possibilities for the future work.
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    Easy Semantification of Bioassays
    (Heidelberg : Springer, 2022) Anteghini, Marco; D’Souza, Jennifer; dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins; Auer, Sören
    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. We propose a solution for automatically semantifying biological assays. Our solution contrasts the problem of automated semantification as labeling versus clustering where the two methods are on opposite ends of the method complexity spectrum. Characteristically modeling our problem, we find the clustering solution significantly outperforms a deep neural network state-of-the-art labeling approach. This novel contribution is based on two factors: 1) a learning objective closely modeled after the data outperforms an alternative approach with sophisticated semantic modeling; 2) automatically semantifying biological assays achieves a high performance F1 of nearly 83%, which to our knowledge is the first reported standardized evaluation of the task offering a strong benchmark model.
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    Synthesis and Self-Assembly Behavior of Double Ullazine-Based Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    (Stuttgart : Georg Thieme, 2021) Richter, Marcus; Borkowski, Michał; Fu, Yubin; Dmitrieva, Evgenia; Popov, Alexey A.; Ma, Ji; Marszalek, Tomasz; Pisula, Wojciech; Feng, Xinliang
    Polycyclic aromatic azomethine ylides (PAMY, 1) are versatile building blocks for the bottom-up synthesis of nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Although the chemistry of PAMY was already established few years ago, the cycloaddition of a double PAMY building block has not been reported so far. In this work, we demonstrate the first cycloaddition of a PAMY-dimer (6), which opens the access to three different alkyl ester-substituted N-PAHs with a laterally extended double ullazine scaffold (DU-1, DU-2 and DU-3). Interestingly, the cyclic voltammetry of DU-1-3 exhibited three reversible oxidation waves, which confirmed the electron-rich nature of the double ullazine scaffold. Furthermore, in-situ spectroelectrochemistry study of ethylhexyl ester-substituted DU-3 revealed the formation of different cationic species with new absorption bands up to 1689 nm. Additionally, the influence of the attached substituents on the film formation and supramolecular organization in the thin films were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.
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    Roadmap to FAIR Research Information in Open Infrastructures
    (Abingdon : Routledge, 2021) Hauschke, Christian; Nazarovets, Serhii; Altemeier, Franziska; Kaliuzhna, Nataliia
    The FAIR Principles were designed to improve the findability, accessibility, interoperability and reusability of data holdings by humans and machines. The principles can be applied to research information too. We present the results of the discussions that took place during the series of online workshops with experts on Research Information and FAIR Guiding Principles. We provide high-level criteria on how to foster findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable, and we hope that our roadmap for FAIR research information in open infrastructures bring many benefits to a diverse group of stakeholders of the scientific ecosystem.
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    Development and Implementation of a Guideline for the Combination of Additively Manufactured Joint Assemblies with Wire Actuators made of Shape Memory Alloys
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2023) Löffler, Robin; Tremmel, Stephan; Hornfeck, Rüdiger
    Smart Materials actuators in the form of wires made of shape memory alloys in combination with additively manufactured carrier components are used in a wide variety of prototype developments of innovative joint assemblies. This combination is relevant because of the same manufacturing costs of the additively manufactured components, which are independent of the quantity of parts, the free geometric design possibilities as well as the huge energy density of the aforementioned actuator technology. In particular, the focus is on the possibility of appropriately fitting large wire lengths on a compact part volume while taking into account acceptable force losses. Since there is no design guideline for such joint developments, each is individual, which results in unnecessarily long development times and a higher risk of errors. Based on selected in-house and third-party examples, integration possibilities of shape memory alloy wire actuators in additively manufactured carrier components are analysed and transferred into a universally applicable design guideline. These recommendations are brought into the framework of existing design guidelines of the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure – Association of German Engineers), namely VDI 2206 and VDI 2221 with extensions for additive manufacturing, for a better usability and integrability into existing processes. Finally, this results in a simplified access to the topic of the combination of additive manufacturing and shape memory alloys and a more efficient realisation of such joint developments.
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    Genealogical properties of spatial models in Population Genetics
    (Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek, 2023-09) Wirtz, Johannes
    At the interface between Phylo- and Population Genetics, and recently heavily inspired by Epidemonology, the discipline of Phylogeography comprises modelling techniques from classical theoretical biology and combines them with a spatial (2D or 3D) aspect, with the purpose of utilizing geographical information in the analysis to understand the evolutionary history of a biological system or aspects of virology such as directionality and seasonality in pandemic outbreaks [1, 2, 3, 4]. An prime example of this are datasets that take into account the sampling locations of its components (geo-referenced genomic data). In this project, we have focused on the model called "spatial Lambda-Fleming-Viot process" ( V [5, 6]) and analzed its statistical properties forward in time as well as in the ancestral (dual) process, with results that may be used for parameter inference. Of particlar interest was the spatial variance, denoted , a parameter controlling the speed at which genetic information is spread across space and therefore an analog of the reproduction number (R0) used in epidemonology e.g. to assess the infectiousness of differing viral strains. We explored the relation of this parameter to the time to coalescence between lineage pairs in this model and described methods of estimating it from sampled data under different circumstances. We have furthermore investigated similarities and differences between this model and classical models in Population Genetics, particularly Birth-Death processes, which are heavily used for all kinds of biological inference problems, but do not by themselves feature a spatial component. We compared the Vto a variant of the Birth-Death process where the location of a live individual changes over the course of its lifetime according to a Brownian motion. This process is not as easily viewed backward in time as the V, but the genalogical process is accessible by Markov-Chain Monte Carlosimulation, as the likelihoods of ancestral positions and branch lengths are easily calculated, making this model easily applicable to data. Our analysis highlights the analogy between the two processes forward in time as well as backward in time; on the other hand, we also observed a divergent behavior of the two models when no prior on the phylogenetic time scale was assumed. Lastly, this project has given rise to a study of combinatorial properties of tree shapes relevant to the V, the Birth-Death and other biological processes. In particular, we were able to identify the combinatorial class genealogical trees generated from these processes belong to and verify a conjecture regarding their enumeration. Preliminary versions of software tools for the aforementioned inference have also been provided.
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    Abschlussbericht für die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft zum DFG-Forschungsvorhaben DE 447/184-1: Einsatzverhalten sintermetallischer Diamantschleifscheiben mit chemisch angebundenen Schleifkörnern
    (Hannover : Technische Informationsbibliothek, 2023-10-23) Lang, Roman; Bergmann, Benjamin; Denkena, Berend
    [no abstract available]
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    Geometric Basics and Calculation Methods for the Design of a Technical Saddle Joint based on Owl Neck Vertebrae
    (Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier, 2023) Gründer, Johannes; Hornfeck, Rüdiger
    A saddle joint enables the movement of two components relative to each other primarily about two axes of rotation and, to a limited extent, in translational direction. This type of joint is primarily found in nature, for example in the human thumb, in the ossicles and the cervical spine of owls. Motivated by the high degree of the owls’ head mobility, the authors aim to make this high motion potential technically accessible by defining relevant design parameters and developing calculation methods for dimensioning the saddle joint components. First, an abstracted contact geometry model based on the owls’ saddle joints is de-fined. A method for calculating the kinematics of the joint as a function of the previously introduced design parameters of the contact is derived mathematically. Regarding the implementation in a design process, this model is used to calculate the restoring forces required to stabilize the joint parts as well as the actuator torque needed for a specific rotational movement around those axes. Furthermore, the rotational stiffness of a specific joint geometry is calculated as an important design criterion. In summary, the defined contact geometry, the kinematics, and the computable forces serve as basis for designing technical saddle joints in the future.
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    Compacting frequent star patterns in RDF graphs
    (Dordrecht : Springer Science + Business Media B.V, 2020) Karim, Farah; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Auer, Sören
    Knowledge graphs have become a popular formalism for representing entities and their properties using a graph data model, e.g., the Resource Description Framework (RDF). An RDF graph comprises entities of the same type connected to objects or other entities using labeled edges annotated with properties. RDF graphs usually contain entities that share the same objects in a certain group of properties, i.e., they match star patterns composed of these properties and objects. In case the number of these entities or properties in these star patterns is large, the size of the RDF graph and query processing are negatively impacted; we refer these star patterns as frequent star patterns. We address the problem of identifying frequent star patterns in RDF graphs and devise the concept of factorized RDF graphs, which denote compact representations of RDF graphs where the number of frequent star patterns is minimized. We also develop computational methods to identify frequent star patterns and generate a factorized RDF graph, where compact RDF molecules replace frequent star patterns. A compact RDF molecule of a frequent star pattern denotes an RDF subgraph that instantiates the corresponding star pattern. Instead of having all the entities matching the original frequent star pattern, a surrogate entity is added and related to the properties of the frequent star pattern; it is linked to the entities that originally match the frequent star pattern. Since the edges between the entities and the objects in the frequent star pattern are replaced by edges between these entities and the surrogate entity of the compact RDF molecule, the size of the RDF graph is reduced. We evaluate the performance of our factorization techniques on several RDF graph benchmarks and compare with a baseline built on top gSpan, a state-of-the-art algorithm to detect frequent patterns. The outcomes evidence the efficiency of proposed approach and show that our techniques are able to reduce execution time of the baseline approach in at least three orders of magnitude. Additionally, RDF graph size can be reduced by up to 66.56% while data represented in the original RDF graph is preserved.
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    Sperm Micromotors for Cargo Delivery through Flowing Blood
    (Washington, DC : American Chemical Society, 2020) Xu, Haifeng; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Maitz, Manfred F.; Werner, Carsten; Schmidt, Oliver G.
    Micromotors are recognized as promising candidates for untethered micromanipulation and targeted cargo delivery in complex biological environments. However, their feasibility in the circulatory system has been limited due to the low thrust force exhibited by many of the reported synthetic micromotors, which is not sufficient to overcome the high flow and complex composition of blood. Here we present a hybrid sperm micromotor that can actively swim against flowing blood (continuous and pulsatile) and perform the function of heparin cargo delivery. In this biohybrid system, the sperm flagellum provides a high propulsion force while the synthetic microstructure serves for magnetic guidance and cargo transport. Moreover, single sperm micromotors can assemble into a train-like carrier after magnetization, allowing the transport of multiple sperm or medical cargoes to the area of interest, serving as potential anticoagulant agents to treat blood clots or other diseases in the circulatory system.