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    Comparison of nanotubes produced by fixed bed and aerosol-CVD methods and their electrical percolation behaviour in melt mixed polyamide 6.6 composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2010) Krause, Beate; Ritschel, M.; Täschner, C.; Oswald, S.; Gruner, W.; Leonhardt, A.; Pötschke, Petra
    The electrical percolation behaviour of five different kinds of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) synthesised by two CVD techniques was investigated on melt mixed composites based on an insulating polyamide 6.6 matrix. The electrical percolation behaviour was found to be strongly dependent on the properties of CNTs which varied with the synthesis conditions. The lowest electrical percolation threshold (0.04 wt.%) was determined for as grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes without any purification or chemical treatment. Such carbon nanotubes were synthesised by the aerosol method using acetonitrile as ferrocene containing solvent and show relatively low oxygen content near the surface, high aspect ratio, and good dispersability. Similar properties could be found for nanotubes produced by the aerosol method using cyclohexane, whereas CNTs produced by the fixed bed method using different iron contents in the catalyst material showed much higher electrical percolation thresholds between 0.35 and 1.02 wt.%. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Electrical and thermal properties of polyamide 12 composites with hybrid fillers systems of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon black
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Hermasch, Sylvia; Wursche, Roland; Pötschke, Petra
    Hybrid filler systems of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon black (CB) were incorporated into two types of polyamide 12 (PA12) using small-scale melt mixing in order to identify potential synergistic effects on the interaction of these two electrical conductive fillers. Although no synergistic effects were observed regarding the electrical percolation threshold, at loadings well above the percolation threshold higher volume conductivities were obtained for samples containing both, MWCNT and CB, as compared to single fillers. This effect was more pronounced when using a higher viscous PA12 matrix. The formation of a co-supporting network can be assumed. The combined use of CB and MWCNTs improved the macrodispersion of MWCNT agglomerates, which can be assigned as a synergistic effect. DSC measurements indicated an effect of the nanofiller on crystallisation temperatures of PA12; however this was independent of the kind or amount of the carbon nanofiller. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Influence of feeding conditions in twin-screw extrusion of PP/MWCNT composites on electrical and mechanical properties
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Müller, Michael Thomas; Krause, Beate; Kretzschmar, Bernd; Pötschke, Petra
    The influence of feeding conditions of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) materials, namely Baytubes® C150P and Nanocyl™ NC7000, into polypropylene (PP) was investigated with respect to achieving suitable nanotube dispersion, high electrical conductivity, and good mechanical properties. Both MWCNT materials were fed at selected concentrations either in the hopper of the twin-screw extruder or using a side feeder under otherwise identical extrusion conditions (rotation speed, throughput, temperature profile) using a Berstorff ZE 25 twin-screw extruder. Afterwards, injection molding was performed under identical conditions. The results indicate that the more compact Baytubes® C150P agglomerates should be added into the hopper, as the dispersion assessed by light microscopy is better, electrical resistivities measured on compression and injection molded samples are lower, and elastic modulus, yield strength and impact strength are higher as compared to side feeding. On the other hand, for the more loosely packed Nanocyl™ NC7000 agglomerates, addition using the side feeder leads to better dispersion, lower electrical resistivity, and higher mechanical properties. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Influence of dry grinding in a ball mill on the length of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and their dispersion and percolation behaviour in melt mixed polycarbonate composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Krause, Beate; Villmow, Tobias; Boldt, Regine; Mende, Mandy; Petzold, Gudrun; Pötschke, Petra
    Ball milling of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the dry state is a common way to produce tailored CNT materials for composite applications, especially to adjust nanotube lengths. For NanocylTM NC7000 nanotube material before and after milling for 5 and 10h the length distributions were quantified using TEM analysis, showing decreases of the mean length to 54% and 35%, respectively. With increasing ball milling time in addition a decrease of agglomerate size and an increase of packing density took place resulting in a worse dispersability in aqueous surfactant solutions. In melt mixed CNT/polycarbonate composites produced using masterbatch dilution step, the electrical properties, the nanotube length distribution after processing, and the nano- and macrodispersion of the nanotubes were studied. The slight increase in the electrical percolation threshold in the melt mixed composites with ball milling time of CNTs can be assigned to lower nanotube lengths as well as the worse dispersability of the ball milled nanotubes. After melt compounding, the mean CNT lengths were shortened to 31%, 50%, and 66% of the initial lengths of NC7000, NC7000-5h, and NC7000-10h, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Melt mixed nano composites of PA12 with MWNTs: Influence of MWNT and matrix properties on macrodispersion and electrical properties
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Socher, Robert; Krause, Beate; Boldt, Regine; Hermasch, Sylvia; Wursche, Roland; Pötschke, Petra
    Nanocomposites containing four different polyamide 12 (PA12) types and three grades of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared via small-scale melt processing to study the effect of different MWNTs and the influence of polymer properties on the dispersion of the fillers and the electrical properties of the composites. Under the selected mixing conditions the lowest electrical percolation threshold of 0.7. wt.% was found for Nanocyl™ NC7000 in low viscous PA12. Moreover, big influences of the end group functionality (acid or amine excess) and the melt viscosity of the matrix were found. Composites of PA12 with acid excess showed lower percolation thresholds than those based on amine terminated materials. At constant end group ratio low viscous matrices resulted in lower percolation thresholds than high viscous materials. The best MWNT dispersion was obtained in both high viscous PA12 composites. In these systems the mixing speed was varied indicating an optimum concerning electrical conductivity at 150 rpm as compared to 50 and 250 rpm. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Percolation behaviour of multiwalled carbon nanotubes of altered length and primary agglomerate morphology in melt mixed isotactic polypropylene-based composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2011) Menzer, Katharina; Krause, Beate; Boldt, Regine; Kretzschmar, Bernd; Weidisch, Roland; Pötschke, Petra
    The effect of ball milling on the structural characteristics and further on the dispersion and percolation behaviour of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in melt mixed composites using a maleic anhydride modified isotactic polypropylene as matrix was investigated. TEM and SEM revealed that ball milled nanotubes were considerably shorter and showed a compact primary agglomerate morphology compared to the as-synthesised MWCNTs. At macro scale ball milled MWCNTs were found to be better dispersed, whereas at sub-micron scale the states of dispersion of both nanotube materials were comparable. The differences in the composite morphologies as well as in the composites electrical and rheological percolation behaviour were assigned to the altered MWCNT structure due to ball milling treatment. The dispersibility of ball milled MWCNTs was restricted due to their more compact agglomerate morphology. Furthermore, the ability to form percolated network structures was restrained by their shorter length and, again, their compact primary agglomerates. An effective agglomerate interaction radius depending on the nanotube structural characteristics, length and agglomerate morphology, is suggested in order to explain the experimental findings. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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    Influence of different carbon nanotubes on the electrical and mechanical properties of melt mixed poly(ether sulfone)-multi walled carbon nanotube composites
    (Barking : Elsevier, 2012) Chakraborty, Sourav; Pionteck, Jürgen; Krause, Beate; Banerjee, Susanta; Voit, Brigitte
    Commercial Udel® poly(ether sulfone) (PSU) was filled with three different commercially available multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by small scale melt mixing. The MWCNTs were as grown NC 7000 and two of its derivatives prepared by ball milling treatment. One of them was unmodified (NC 3150); the other was amino modified (NC 3152). The main difference beside the reactivity was the reduced aspect ratio of NC 3150 and NC 3152 caused by ball milling process. All PSU/MWCNT composites with similar filler content were prepared under fixed processing conditions and comparative analysis of their electrical and mechanical properties were performed and were correlated with their microstructure, characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A non-uniform MWCNT dispersion was observed in all composites. The MWCNTs were present in form of agglomerates in the size of 10-60. μm whereas the deagglomerated part was homogeneously distributed in the PSU matrix. The differences in the agglomeration states correlate with the variations of properties between different PSU/MWCNT composites. The lowest electrical percolation threshold of 0.25-0.5. wt.% was observed for the shortened non-functionalized MWCNT composites and the highest for amine-modified MWCNT composites (ca. 1.5. wt.%). The tensile behavior of the three composites was only slightly altered with CNT loading as compared to the pure PSU. However, the elongation at break showed a reduction with MWCNT loading and the reduction was least for composite with best MWCNT dispersion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.