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Comparison of the molecular properties and morphology of polypropylenes irradiated under different atmospheres and after annealing

2006, Krause, Beate, Häußler, Liane, Voigt, Dieter

Electron-beam irradiation, a well-known way of generating long-chain branching, was used to modify polypropylene. Samples were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry, polarized light microscopy, and size exclusion chromatography. Independently of the atmosphere, postannealing led to the deactivation of residual radicals and to the reduction of the nucleus density. In comparison with the initial polypropylene, the crystallization temperatures increased for nonannealed samples but decreased for annealed samples. Stable products were obtained only by irradiation in nitrogen followed by annealing. A reaction including free radicals with oxygen in the ambient atmosphere led to increasing molar mass degradation and the formation of long-chain branching after Storage. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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A successful approach to disperse MWCNTs in polyethylene by melt mixing using polyethylene glycol as additive

2012, Müller, Michael Thomas, Krause, Beate, Pötschke, Petra

An additive-assisted one-step melt mixing approach was developed to produce nanocomposites based on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The polymer granules, nanotube powder (2 wt% Nanocyl™ NC7000) and 1-10 wt% of the non-ionic additives poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with molar masses between 100 g/mol and 100,000 g/mol were simply fed together in the hopper of a small-scale DSM Xplore 15 twin-screw microcompounder. The produced MWCNT/LLDPE composites showed excellent MWCNT dispersion and highly improved electrical properties as compared to samples without the additive, whereas the effects depend on the amount and molar mass of the additive. When 7 wt% PEG (2000 g/mol) were used, a reduction of the electrical percolation threshold from 2.5 wt% to 1.5 wt% was achieved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Easy Semantification of Bioassays

2022, Anteghini, Marco, D’Souza, Jennifer, dos Santos, Vitor A. P. Martins, Auer, Sören

Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. We propose a solution for automatically semantifying biological assays. Our solution contrasts the problem of automated semantification as labeling versus clustering where the two methods are on opposite ends of the method complexity spectrum. Characteristically modeling our problem, we find the clustering solution significantly outperforms a deep neural network state-of-the-art labeling approach. This novel contribution is based on two factors: 1) a learning objective closely modeled after the data outperforms an alternative approach with sophisticated semantic modeling; 2) automatically semantifying biological assays achieves a high performance F1 of nearly 83%, which to our knowledge is the first reported standardized evaluation of the task offering a strong benchmark model.

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Achieving electrical conductive tracks by laser treatment of non-conductive polypropylene/polycarbonate blends filled with MWCNTs

2014, Liebscher, Marco, Krause, Beate, Pötschke, Petra, Barz, Andrea, Bliedtner, Jens, Möhwald, Michael, Letzsch, Alexander

Electrical non-conductive polymer blends consisting of a polypropylene (PP) matrix and dispersed particles of polycarbonate (PC) were melt compounded with 3 wt.% multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading and processed into plates by injection molding. The morphological analysis confirmed the selective localization of the MWCNTs in the PC component. By local irradiation with a CO2 laser beam, depending on the laser conditions, conductive tracks with dimensions of about 2 mm width, 80 to 370 μm depth and line resistances as low as 1.5 kΩ · cm-1 were created on the surface of the non-conductive plates. The factors affecting the line resistance are the PC content, the laser speed and laser power, as well as laser direction with respect to the melt flow direction. After the irradiation an enrichment of MWCNTs in the laser lines was detected indicating that conductive paths were generated by percolation of nanotubes selectively within these lines in otherwise non-conductive plates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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Effect of Ge-doping on the short-wave, mid- and far-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures

2017, Lim, Carolin B., Ajay, Akhil, Lähnemann, Jonas, Bougerol, Catherine, Monroy, Eva

This paper assesses the effects of Ge-doping on the structural and optical (band-to-band and intersubband (ISB)) properties of GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum wells (QWs) designed to display ISB absorption in the short-wave, mid- and far-infrared ranges (SWIR, MIR, and FIR, respectively). The standard c-plane crystallographic orientation is considered for wells absorbing in the SWIR and MIR spectral regions, whereas the FIR structures are grown along the nonpolar m-axis. In all cases, we compare the characteristics of Ge-doped and Si-doped samples with the same design and various doping levels. The use of Ge appears to improve the mosaicity of the highly lattice-mismatched GaN/AlN heterostructures. However, when reducing the lattice mismatch, the mosaicity is rather determined by the substrate and does not show any dependence on the dopant nature or concentration. From the optical point of view, by increasing the dopant density, we observe a blueshift of the photoluminescence in polar samples due to the screening of the internal electric field by free carriers. In the ISB absorption, on the other hand, there is a systematic improvement of the linewidth when using Ge as a dopant for high doping levels, whatever the spectral region under consideration (i.e. different QW size, barrier composition and crystallographic orientation).

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Electrical and melt rheological characterization of PC and co-continuous PC/SAN blends filled with CNTs: Relationship between melt-mixing parameters, filler dispersion, and filler aspect ratio

2018, Liebscher, Marco, Domurath, Jan, Krause, Beate, Saphiannikova, Marina, Heinrich, Gert, Pötschke, Petra

Electrical and melt rheological properties of melt-mixed polycarbonate (PC) and co-continuous PC/poly(styrene–acrylonitrile) (SAN) blends with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are investigated. Using two sets of mixing parameters, different states of filler dispersion are obtained. With increasing CNT dispersion, an increase in electrical resistivity near the percolation threshold of PC–CNT composites and (PC + CNT)/SAN blends is observed. This suggests that the higher mixing energies required for better dispersion also result in a more severe reduction of the CNT aspect ratio; this effect was proven by CNT length measurements. Melt rheological studies show higher reinforcing effects for composites with worse dispersion. The Eilers equation, describing the melt viscosity as function of filler content, was used to fit the data and to obtain information about an apparent aspect ratio change, which was in accordance with measured CNT length reduction. Such fitting could be also transferred to the blends and serves for a qualitatively based discussion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

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Synthesis and Self-Assembly Behavior of Double Ullazine-Based Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

2021, Richter, Marcus, Borkowski, Michał, Fu, Yubin, Dmitrieva, Evgenia, Popov, Alexey A., Ma, Ji, Marszalek, Tomasz, Pisula, Wojciech, Feng, Xinliang

Polycyclic aromatic azomethine ylides (PAMY, 1) are versatile building blocks for the bottom-up synthesis of nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Although the chemistry of PAMY was already established few years ago, the cycloaddition of a double PAMY building block has not been reported so far. In this work, we demonstrate the first cycloaddition of a PAMY-dimer (6), which opens the access to three different alkyl ester-substituted N-PAHs with a laterally extended double ullazine scaffold (DU-1, DU-2 and DU-3). Interestingly, the cyclic voltammetry of DU-1-3 exhibited three reversible oxidation waves, which confirmed the electron-rich nature of the double ullazine scaffold. Furthermore, in-situ spectroelectrochemistry study of ethylhexyl ester-substituted DU-3 revealed the formation of different cationic species with new absorption bands up to 1689 nm. Additionally, the influence of the attached substituents on the film formation and supramolecular organization in the thin films were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

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Oberflächenmorphologie von Arzneistoffpartikeln - Ein optisch evaluierbares Kriterium für die Auflösungsgeschwindigkeit

2002, Diebold, Steffen M.

Für die Auflösungsgeschwindigkeit von schwer wasserlöslichen Arzneistoffpartikeln spielt die Hydrodynamik an den Partikel-Oberflächen eine große Rolle. Diese ist ihrerseits beeinflußt von der Geometrie und der Oberflächenmorphologie der Partikel. In dieser Arbeit wurde gezeigt, dass sich zur Charakterisierung dieser Parameter die Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (SEM) auch für die Untersuchung von Arzneistoffen gut eignet. Am Beispiel von Felodipin-Kristallen wurde nachgewiesen, dass reale Arzneistoffpulver auch an scheinbar „glatten“ Oberflächen Protrusionen, Kanten und Kavitäten aufweisen. Deren Größenordnungen lassen sich mit Hilfe der Elektronenmikroskopie abschätzen. Die Oberflächenmorphologie von Arzneistoffpartikeln ist ein Kriterium für die Auflösungsgeschwindigkeit oral verabreichter Arzneistoffe. Die Rasterelektronenmikroskopie leistet dabei wertvolle Dienste zur Charakterisierung der Oberflächen von Arzneistoffpartikeln.

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A Fair and Comprehensive Comparison of Multimodal Tweet Sentiment Analysis Methods

2021, Cheema, Gullal S., Hakimov, Sherzod, Müller-Budack, Eric, Ewerth, Ralph

Opinion and sentiment analysis is a vital task to characterize subjective information in social media posts. In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental evaluation and comparison with six state-of-the-art methods, from which we have re-implemented one of them. In addition, we investigate different textual and visual feature embeddings that cover different aspects of the content, as well as the recently introduced multimodal CLIP embeddings. Experimental results are presented for two different publicly available benchmark datasets of tweets and corresponding images. In contrast to the evaluation methodology of previous work, we introduce a reproducible and fair evaluation scheme to make results comparable. Finally, we conduct an error analysis to outline the limitations of the methods and possibilities for the future work.

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Hybrid conductive filler/polycarbonate composites with enhanced electrical and thermal conductivities for bipolar plate applications

2019, Naji, Ahmed, Krause, Beate, Pötschke, Petra, Ameli, Amir

Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) with high electrical and thermal conductivities are demanded for bipolar plates of fuel cells. In this work, CPCs of polycarbonate (PC) filled with carbon nanotube (CNT), carbon fiber (CF), graphite (G), and their double and triple hybrids were prepared using solution casting method followed by compression molding. The results showed that the electrical percolation thresholds for the PC-CNT and PC-CF were ~1 wt% and ~10 wt%, respectively, while no clear threshold was found for PC-G composites. Addition of 3–5 wt% CNT improved the electrical conductivity of PC-CF and PC-G systems up to 6 orders of magnitude and enhanced the thermal conductivity as much as 65%. The results of triple hybrid CPCs (with constant loading of 63 wt%) indicated that the combination of highest electrical and thermal conductivities is achieved when the CF and CNT loadings were near their percolation thresholds. Therefore, a triple filler system of 3 wt% CNT, 10 wt% CF, and 50 wt% G resulted in a composite with the through-plane and in-plane electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity values of 12.8 S/cm, 8.3 S/cm, and 1.7 W/m•K, respectively. The results offer a combination of properties surpassing the existing values and suitable for high-conductivity applications such as bipolar plates. POLYM. COMPOS., 40:3189–3198, 2019. © 2018 Society of Plastics Engineers.