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    Mehrwellenlängenlidar- und Flugzeugmessungen im Rahmen eines Aerosäulenschließungsexperiments : Schlußbericht
    (Leipzig : Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung, 2000) Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Wendisch, Manfred; Keil, Andreas; Müller, Dörthe
    [no abstract available]
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    Measurements of particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio at 1064 nm with the rotational raman method in Polly-XT
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2018) Engelmann, Ronny; Haarig, Moritz; Baars, Holger; Ansmann, Albert; Kottas, Michael; Marinou, Eleni; Nicolae, D.; Makoto, A.; Vassilis, A.; Balis, D.; Behrendt, A.; Comeron, A.; Gibert, F.; Landulfo, E.; McCormick, M.P.; Senff, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Wandinger, U.
    We replaced a 1064-nm interference filter of a Polly-XT lidar system by a 1058-nm filter to observe pure rotational Raman backscattering from atmospheric Nitrogen and Oxygen. Polly-XT is compact Raman lidar with a Nd:YAG laser (20 Hz, 200 mJ at 1064 nm) and a 30-cm telescope mirror which applies photomultipliers in photoncounting mode. We present the first measured signals at 1058 nm and the derived extinction profile from measurements aboard RV Polarstern and in Leipzig. In combination with another Polly-XT system we could also derive particle backscatter and lidar ratio profiles at 1064 nm.
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    Development of China’s first space-borne aerosol-cloud high-spectral-resolution lidar: retrieval algorithm and airborne demonstration
    ([London] : SpringerOpen, 2022) Ke, Ju; Sun, Yingshan; Dong, Changzhe; Zhang, Xingying; Wang, Zijun; Lyu, Liqing; Zhu, Wei; Ansmann, Albert; Su, Lin; Bu, Lingbing; Xiao, Da; Wang, Shuaibo; Chen, Sijie; Liu, Jiqiao; Chen, Weibiao; Liu, Dong
    Aerosols and clouds greatly affect the Earth’s radiation budget and global climate. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has been recognized as a promising active remote sensing technique for the vertical observations of aerosols and clouds. China launched its first space-borne aerosol-cloud high-spectral-resolution lidar (ACHSRL) on April 16, 2022, which is capable for high accuracy profiling of aerosols and clouds around the globe. This study presents a retrieval algorithm for aerosol and cloud optical properties from ACHSRL which were compared with the end-to-end Monte-Carlo simulations and validated with the data from an airborne flight with the ACHSRL prototype (A2P) instrument. Using imaging denoising, threshold discrimination, and iterative reconstruction methods, this algorithm was developed for calibration, feature detection, and extinction coefficient (EC) retrievals. The simulation results show that 95.4% of the backscatter coefficient (BSC) have an error less than 12% while 95.4% of EC have an error less than 24%. Cirrus and marine and urban aerosols were identified based on the airborne measurements over different surface types. Then, comparisons were made with U.S. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) profiles, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the ground-based sun photometers. High correlations (R > 0.79) were found between BSC (EC) profiles of A2P and CALIOP over forest and town cover, while the correlation coefficients are 0.57 for BSC and 0.58 for EC over ocean cover; the aerosol optical depth retrievals have correlation coefficient of 0.71 with MODIS data and show spatial variations consistent with those from the sun photometers. The algorithm developed for ACHSRL in this study can be directly employed for future space-borne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) and its data products will also supplement CALIOP data coverage for global observations of aerosol and cloud properties.
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    Particle settling and vertical mixing in the Saharan Air Layer as seen from an integrated model, lidar, and in situ perspective
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2017) Gasteiger, Josef; Groß, Silke; Sauer, Daniel; Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Weinzierl, Bernadett
    Long-range transport of aerosol in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) across the Atlantic plays an important role for weather, climate, and ocean fertilization. However, processes occurring within the SAL and their effects on aerosol properties are still unclear. In this work we study particle settling and vertical mixing within the SAL based on measured and modeled vertical aerosol profiles in the upper 1 km of the transported SAL. We use ground-based lidar measurements and airborne particle counter measurements over the western Atlantic, collected during the SALTRACE campaign, as well as space-based CALIOP lidar measurements from Africa to the western Atlantic in the summer season. In our model we take account of the optical properties and the Stokes gravitational settling of irregularly shaped Saharan dust particles. We test two hypotheses about the occurrence of vertical mixing within the SAL over the Atlantic to explain the aerosol profiles observed by the lidars and the particle counter. Our first hypothesis (H1) assumes that no mixing occurs in the SAL leading to a settling-induced separation of particle sizes. The second hypothesis (H2) assumes that vertical mixing occurs in the SAL allowing large super-micron dust particles to stay airborne longer than without mixing. The uncertainties of the particle linear depolarization ratio (δl) profiles measured by the ground-based lidars are comparable to the modeled differences between H1 and H2 and do not allow us to conclude which hypothesis fits better. The SALTRACE in situ data on size-resolved particle number concentrations show a presence of large particles near the SAL top that is inconsistent with H1. The analysis of the CALIOP measurements also reveals that the average δl profile over the western Atlantic is inconsistent with H1. Furthermore, it was found that the average δl profile in the upper 1 km of the SAL does not change along its transport path over the Atlantic. These findings give evidence that vertical mixing within the SAL is a common phenomenon with significant consequences for the evolution of the size distribution of super-micron dust particles during transport over the Atlantic. Further research is needed to precisely characterize the processes that are relevant for this phenomenon.
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    Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Freudenthaler, Volker; Esselborn, Michael; Wiegner, Matthias; Heese, Birgit; Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Wirth, Martin; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Knippertz, Peter; Toledano, Carlos; Gasteiger, Josef; Garhammer, Markus; Seefeldner, Meinhard
    Vertical profiles of the linear particle depolarization ratio of pure dust clouds were measured during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) at Ouarzazate, Morocco (30.9◦N, –6.9◦E), close to source regions in May–June 2006, with four lidar systems at four wavelengths (355, 532, 710 and 1064 nm). The intercomparison of the lidar systems is accompanied by a discussion of the different calibration methods, including a new, advanced method, and a detailed error analysis. Over the whole SAMUM periode pure dust layers show a mean linear particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm of 0.31, in the range between 0.27 and 0.35, with a mean Ångström exponent (AE, 440–870 nm) of 0.18 (range 0.04–0.34) and still high mean linear particle depolarization ratio between 0.21 and 0.25 during periods with aerosol optical thickness less than 0.1, with a mean AE of 0.76 (range 0.65–1.00), which represents a negative correlation of the linear particle depolarization ratio with the AE. A slight decrease of the linear particle depolarization ratio with wavelength was found between 532 and 1064 nm from 0.31 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.04.
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    Saharan dust contribution to the Caribbean summertime boundary layer - A lidar study during SALTRACE
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2016) Groß, Silke; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Müller, Thomas; Sauer, Daniel; Toledano, Carlos; Ansmann, Albert
    Dual-wavelength lidar measurements with the small lidar system POLIS of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München were performed during the SALTRACE experiment at Barbados in June and July 2013. Based on high-accuracy measurements of the linear depolarization ratio down to about 200 m above ground level, the dust volume fraction and the dust mass concentration within the convective marine boundary layer can be derived. Additional information from radiosonde launches at the ground-based measurement site provide independent information on the convective marine boundary layer height and the meteorological situation within the convective marine boundary layer. We investigate the lidar-derived optical properties, the lidar ratio and the particle linear depolarization ratio at 355 and 532 nm and find mean values of 0.04 (SD 0.03) and 0.05 (SD 0.04) at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, for the particle linear depolarization ratio, and (26 ± 5) sr for the lidar ratio at 355 and 532 nm. For the concentration of dust in the convective marine boundary layer we find that most values were between 20 and 50 µgm−3. On most days the dust contribution to total aerosol volume was about 30–40 %. Comparing the dust contribution to the column-integrated sun-photometer measurements we see a correlation between high dust contribution, high total aerosol optical depth and a low Angström exponent, and of low dust contribution with low total aerosol optical depth.
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    Calibration of Raman lidar water vapor profiles by means of AERONET photometer observations and GDAS meteorological data
    (München : European Geopyhsical Union, 2018) Dai, Guangyao; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Engelmann, Ronny; Seifert, Patric; Bühl, Johannes; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Wu, Songhua; Ansmann, Albert
    We present a practical method to continuously calibrate Raman lidar observations of water vapor mixing ratio profiles. The water vapor profile measured with the multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar PollyXT is calibrated by means of co-located AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometer observations and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) temperature and pressure profiles. This method is applied to lidar observations conducted during the Cyprus Cloud Aerosol and Rain Experiment (CyCARE) in Limassol, Cyprus. We use the GDAS temperature and pressure profiles to retrieve the water vapor density. In the next step, the precipitable water vapor from the lidar observations is used for the calibration of the lidar measurements with the sun photometer measurements. The retrieved calibrated water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar measurements has a relative uncertainty of 11 % in which the error is mainly caused by the error of the sun photometer measurements. During CyCARE, nine measurement cases with cloud-free and stable meteorological conditions are selected to calculate the precipitable water vapor from the lidar and the sun photometer observations. The ratio of these two precipitable water vapor values yields the water vapor calibration constant. The calibration constant for the PollyXT Raman lidar is 6.56 g kg−1 ± 0.72 g kg−1 (with a statistical uncertainty of 0.08 g kg−1 and an instrumental uncertainty of 0.72 g kg−1). To check the quality of the water vapor calibration, the water vapor mixing ratio profiles from the simultaneous nighttime observations with Raman lidar and Vaisala radiosonde sounding are compared. The correlation of the water vapor mixing ratios from these two instruments is determined by using all of the 19 simultaneous nighttime measurements during CyCARE. Excellent agreement with the slope of 1.01 and the R2 of 0.99 is found. One example is presented to demonstrate the full potential of a well-calibrated Raman lidar. The relative humidity profiles from lidar, GDAS (simulation) and radiosonde are compared, too. It is found that the combination of water vapor mixing ratio and GDAS temperature profiles allow us to derive relative humidity profiles with the relative uncertainty of 10–20 %.
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    Long-term profiling of aerosol light extinction, particle mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice-nucleating particle concentration over Dushanbe, Tajikistan, in Central Asia
    (Katlenburg-Lindau : EGU, 2020) Hofer, Julian; Ansmann, Albert; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Abdullaev, Sabur F.; Makhmudov, Abduvosit N.
    For the first time, continuous, vertically resolved long-term aerosol measurements were conducted with a state-of-the-art multiwavelength lidar over a Central Asian site. Such observations are urgently required in efforts to predict future climate and environmental conditions and to support spaceborne remote sensing (ground truth activities). The lidar observations were performed in the framework of the Central Asian Dust Experiment (CADEX) at Dushanbe, Tajikistan, from March 2015 to August 2016. An AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun photometer was operated at the lidar field site. During the 18-month campaign, mixtures of continental aerosol pollution and mineral dust were frequently detected from ground to cirrus height level. Regional sources of dust and pollution as well as long-range transport of mineral dust mainly from Middle Eastern and the Saharan deserts determine the aerosol conditions over Tajikistan. In this study, we summarize our findings and present seasonally resolved statistics regarding aerosol layering (main aerosol layer depth, lofted layer occurrence); optical properties (aerosol and dust optical thicknesses at 500–532 nm, vertically resolved light-extinction coefficient at 532 nm); profiles of dust and non-dust mass concentrations and dust fraction; and profiles of particle parameters relevant for liquid water, mixed-phase cloud, and cirrus formation such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations. The main aerosol layer over Dushanbe typically reaches 4–5 km height in spring to autumn. Frequently lofted dust-containing aerosol layers were observed at heights from 5 to 10 km, indicating a sensitive potential of dust to influence cloud ice formation. Typical dust mass fractions were of the order of 60 %–80 %. A considerable fraction is thus anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning smoke. The highest aerosol pollution levels (in the relatively shallow winter boundary layer) occur during the winter months. The seasonal mean 500 nm AOT (aerosol optical thickness) ranges from 0.15 in winter to 0.36 in summer during the CADEX period (March 2015 to August 2016); DOTs (dust optical thicknesses) were usually below 0.2; seasonally mean particle extinction coefficients were of the order of 100–500 Mm−1 in the main aerosol layer during the summer half year and about 100–150 Mm−1 in winter but were mainly caused by anthropogenic haze. Accordingly, the highest dust mass concentrations occurred in the summer season (200–600 µg m−3) and the lowest during the winter months (20–50 µg m−3) in the main aerosol layer. In winter, the aerosol pollution mass concentrations were 20–50 µg m−3, while during the summer half year (spring to autumn), the mass concentration caused by urban haze and biomass burning smoke decreases to 10–20 µg m−3 in the lower troposphere. The CCN concentration levels are always controlled by aerosol pollution. The INP concentrations were found to be high enough in the middle and upper troposphere to significantly influence ice formation in mixed-phase and ice clouds during spring and summer seasons.
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    Doppler lidar studies of heat island effects on vertical mixing of aerosols during SAMUM-2
    (Milton Park : Taylor & Francis, 2017) Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Horn, Stefan; Seifert, Patric; Althausen, Dietrich; Tesche, Matthias; Esselborn, Michael; Fruntke, Julia; Lieke, Kirsten; Freudenthaler, Volker; Gross, Silke
    A wind Doppler lidar was deployed next to three aerosol lidars during the SAMUM–2 campaign on the main island of Cape Verde. The effects of the differential heating of the island and the surrounding ocean and the orographic impact of the capital island Santiago and the small island on its luv side, Maio, are investigated. Horizontal and vertical winds were measured in the disturbed maritime boundary layer and compared to local radiosoundings. Lidar measurements from the research aircraft Falcon and a 3-D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model were used in addition to study the heating effects on the scale of the islands. Indications are found that these effects can widely control the downward mixing from greater heights to the surface of African aerosols, mainly Saharan dust and biomass-burning smoke, which were detected in a complex layering over the Cape Verde region.
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    Triple-wavelength lidar observations of the linear depolarization ratio of dried marine particles
    (Les Ulis : EDP Sciences, 2018) Haarig, Moritz; Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Althausen, Dietrich; Bohlmann, Stephanie; Gasteiger, Josef; Farrell, David; Nicolae, D.; Makoto, A.; Vassilis, A.; Balis, D.; Behrendt, A.; Comeron, A.; Gibert, F.; Landulfo, E.; McCormick, M.P.; Senff, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Wandinger, U.
    For aerosol typing with lidar, sea salt particles are usually assumed to be spherical with a consequently low depolarization ratio. Evidence of dried marine particles at the top of the humid marine aerosol layer with a depolarization ratio up to 0.1 has been found at predominately maritime locations on Barbados and in the Southern Atlantic. The depolarization ratio for these probably cubic sea salt particles has been measured at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) simultaneously for the first time and compared to model simulations.